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Report

Child and Youth Wellbeing Strategy Annual Report 2019/2020 - HTML version

Issue date: 
Thursday, 13 May 2021
Publication category: 
Resources

Prime Minister's foreword

When the Child and Youth Wellbeing Strategy was first launched, its founding vision was for New Zealand to be the best place in the world to be a child or young person; a place where every one of our tamariki and rangatahi are loved, confident, happy and healthy, and empowered to reach their full potential.

While most kiwi kids fit this category, the reality is too many do not. Too many are not experiencing anything close to a good life.

That is why children and their wellbeing remain for me one of the greatest drivers of the work we do as a Government.

The Strategy, launched in August 2019, is a bold and ambitious document setting out actions right across government. It has helped guide and create change that puts children first.

Significant amounts of Budget investment and ongoing work across government is now targeted at addressing child poverty, family violence, inadequate housing and improving learning support and mental health services for children, young people and their families. These actions have seen child poverty reduce against all nine official measures.

As the Minister responsible for the Strategy, I am required to prepare an annual report to Parliament on the progress we are making towards achieving its outcomes. This is the first Annual Report, and an opportunity to take stock of our achievements and recognise where we need greater focus and work.

The Strategy reflects the voices of the more than 6,000 children and young people who told us what they felt was needed for a good life. We will continue to uphold the experiences and insights of these young people by putting their feedback into action through the Strategy.

I want to acknowledge how challenging the last year has been. The COVID-19 pandemic, and all the associated disruptions and changes, continue to impact the wellbeing of children and young people, along with their whānau and wider communities. Throughout the Government's response to COVID-19, the Strategy has helped guide our efforts and has driven a unified and holistic approach to new and emerging issues for children and young people.

For example, we have increased income support for families on a benefit, expanded Free and Healthy School Lunch programme so that by the end of 2021, 215,000 children across the country will be enjoying a nutritious lunch for free, and are rolling out free period products in schools across New Zealand.

I am proud of our achievements to date, but the work is far from done. We will continue to build on progress, putting children and young people first, so that New Zealand really can be the best place in the world for them to be.

Rt Hon Jacinda Ardern
Minister for Child Poverty Reduction

Introduction and context

The Government launched the Child and Youth Wellbeing Strategy (the Strategy) in August 2019.

The vision

The Strategy has a bold vision that New Zealand is the best place in the world for children and young people.

The Strategy sets out a shared understanding of what children and young people[1] need and want in order to be well, what Government has committed to do, and how others can help.

The wellbeing outcomes

The Strategy sets out six high-level and interconnected wellbeing outcomes for all children and young people.

The outcomes reflect what children and young people said was important to them and signpost the social, economic and environmental conditions needed for child and youth wellbeing. The six outcomes are:

  • Children and young people are loved, safe and nurtured – this includes loving homes free from violence, having time with family and whānau and being safe and secure from harm and accidents.
  • Children and young people have what they need – this includes income and resources, as well as other important aspects of material wellbeing such as access to nutritious food
  • Children and young people are happy and healthy – this includes physical and mental health, spaces and opportunities to play and healthy environments.
  • Children and young people are learning and developing – this includes education to build knowledge, skills and capabilities and encouragement to achieve their potential and navigate life's transitions.
  • Children and young people are accepted, respected and connected – this includes feeling a sense of belonging, living free from racism and discrimination, having good relationships and being connected to identity.
  • Children and young people are involved and empowered – this includes support to contribute, be listened to, care for others, make healthy choices and develop autonomy.

The guiding principles

Nine principles have been established to guide the development and ongoing implementation of the Strategy.

These principles reflect the values that are important to New Zealanders, and the requirements of the Children's Act 2014, New Zealand's constitutional arrangements, in particular Te Tiriti O Waitangi, and international commitments.

The principles are:

  • Children and young people are taonga.
  • Māori are tangata whenua and the Māori-Crown Relationship is foundational.
  • Children and young people's rights need to be respected and upheld.
  • All children and young people deserve to live a good life.
  • Wellbeing needs holistic and comprehensive approaches.
  • Children and young people's wellbeing is interwoven with family and whānau wellbeing.
  • Change requires action by all of us.
  • Actions must deliver better life outcomes.
  • Early support is needed.

The child and youth wellbeing indicators

The Strategy sets out 36 Indicators that will be used to help us measure progress towards achieving each of the six wellbeing outcomes for children and young people.

The Programme of Action

The Programme of Action sets out the policies, initiatives, programmes and plans underway across Government that contribute to the achievement of the Strategy's vision and outcomes.

The Programme of Action includes a broad range of activity at different levels and stages of implementation. Each action in the programme aligns with at least one wellbeing outcome and may contribute to others.

It is intended to be a living document that is updated as existing actions are completed, and new actions are developed.

The latest Programme of Action can be found here: childyouthwellbeing.govt.nz/actions

Purpose of this report

The Children's Act 2014 requires an annual report on the progress of the Strategy's six outcomes. Reporting on the outcomes is essential as, over time, this will show the impact of the Strategy and government work on child and youth wellbeing.

While the first annual report is not required until 2022, earlier reporting gives an idea of how child and youth wellbeing looks the first year after the Strategy's publication and allows us to establish baseline data for some of the indicators.[2]

This report covers the progress made during the first ten months of the Strategy's implementation, from September 2019 to June 2020. For the full Strategy and current programme of action, go to childyouthwellbeing.govt.nz

Part one: Overview of child and youth wellbeing in 2019-20

The 2019/20 year at a glance

  • 100,00 families with children have had their incomes increased by $100 a week through the Families Package and 2020 income support changes
  • 70,000* families benefited from the Best Start payment, worth $60 a week
    * as at Sept 2020
  • 90% of decile 1-7 schools have opted in to the scheme to replace school donations
  • Zero-fee GP visits and prescriptions have been extended to 56,000 13-year-olds
  • 13,000 students accessed the Free and Healthy School Lunch programme, to be expanded to 215,000 students in 2021
  • 1,705 more public houses, 327 more transitional housing places and 256 more Housing First places
  • Over 20,000* insulation and heating retrofits have been delivered
    * since programme launch in July 2018
  • 86% of the 623 new Learning Support Coordinator roles began working in schools
  • 82,600 decile 1-5 students can access nurses in schools

Child and youth wellbeing in New Zealand

This report presents wellbeing data for the 2019/2020 financial year – the year the Child and Youth Wellbeing Strategy was launched. This period also coincides with the outbreak and spread of COVID-19. However, much of the economic data included in this report does not reflect the impact of COVID-19 on child and youth wellbeing, as the Household Economic Survey finished in late March 2020 because of the first lock-down. Where there is no 2019/2020 data source, we have presented data for the most recent period available.

COVID-19 has given rise to major challenges in the lives of individuals, families and communities, including economic disruption. It will have consequences that go well beyond the spread of the disease. Therefore, it is important to consider how children and young people were faring in New Zealand before the pandemic struck and how COVID-19 is likely to impact their wellbeing.

The state of child and youth wellbeing in New Zealand

The majority of children and young people in New Zealand are doing well. They receive the care and support they need and have positive relationships with their parents and caregivers.

  • 78.3% of young people (aged 18-24 years) rated their family wellbeing as high[3], as did 84.1% of parents of dependent children.[4]
  • Most of the children and young people (aged 13-18 years) agreed or strongly agreed they get enough quality time with their family/whānau (72.3%).[5]

However, there is a significant group of children for whom life at home is quite different:

  • 80,928 children and young people were notified to Oranga Tamariki, with around half referred for further assessment or investigation in 2019/20.[6]
  • 11.2% of secondary school students said they had witnessed adults in their home hitting or physically hurting each other, and 10% had been hit or physically harmed by an adult in the last 12 months.[7]

An important focus in the immediate future for the Government is the development of the National Strategy and Action Plan for eliminating family violence and sexual violence, and the completion of the new Oranga Tamariki Action Plan to better support children and young people who are at risk of harm.

For much of the past decade, New Zealand experienced a sustained economic growth period, and many families saw a material improvement in their living standards. But these broad trends did not reflect the experience of all households, with a significant group of families in New Zealand continuing to experience poverty and frequently going without the basics in life – like access to nutritious food and a warm, dry home.

Prior to COVID-19, there was evidence of progress for those families, largely due to the impact of the Families Package. Child poverty statistics show that all nine key measures of child poverty have trended downwards since the year ended June 2018:

  • In the year ended June 2020, between 130,000 and 211,000 children (aged 0-17 years) lived in poverty on the Child Poverty Reduction Act's primary measures compared with between 148,000 and 254,000 in the year ended June 2018.[8]

However, there is still more to do. Housing costs have taken up an increasing proportion of family budgets, particularly for those on the lowest incomes[9], and this is putting considerable pressure on many families.

Many adverse housing outcomes are associated with rental housing in New Zealand. 14.2% of children lived in rentals reporting a major problem with dampness or mould (compared with 1.6% of households living in owneroccupied dwellings).[10]

The Government has made changes to improve the quality of housing and conditions for renters by implementing the Healthy Homes Guarantee Act 2017 and setting the Healthy Homes Standards. The Standards set minimum requirements for heating, insulation, ventilation, moisture and drainage, and draught stopping in residential rental properties.

The critical importance of children's health and development in the early years is well established. There are, however, persistent differences in access rates for early childhood services, a decline in school achievement rates and ongoing inequities in some outcomes for children. For instance:

  • The rate of potentially avoidable hospitalisations in children (0-14) was 49 per 1,000,[11] but was higher for Māori and Pacific children at 56 and 72.1 respectively.[12]
  • While still above average in international comparisons, New Zealand's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) scores for 2018 show a decline in student achievement since the early 2000s. The scores also show large ongoing differences in performance between advantaged and disadvantaged students.

The vast majority of 15-24-year olds (90.5%) report their health as good, very good, or excellent[13]. However, there are some concerning signs for children and young people on indicators of mental wellbeing:

  • In 2019/20, 11.1% of children and young people (aged 15-24 years) reported experiencing psychological or mental distress (symptoms such as anxiety, psychological fatigue, or depression in the past four weeks)[14], compared to 5.0% in 2011/12[15].

A key initiative that this Government will be rolling out nationwide over the next five years is Mana Ake, a holistic mental health programme supporting primary and intermediate school children.

Most children and young people reported feeling accepted, having social support, and a sense of belonging and identity:

  • 82.5% of 15-24-year-olds found their ability to express identity 'very easy' or 'easy'[16] and 63.4% felt like they belong in New Zealand.[17]
  • 88.3% of secondary school students reported their family/whānau accepted them for who they are[18] and 76.1% of students agreed and strongly agreed that there was someone in their family/whānau who they can talk with about things that are worrying them.[19]

However, discrimination and bullying remain major problems:

  • 20.2% of young people aged 18-24 reported experiencing discrimination in the last 12 months.[20]
  • 5.9% of secondary school students reported very regular bullying and 3.9 of males and 7.7% of females had not gone to school in the past month because they were afraid they might be hurt, teased or bullied.[21]

One positive trend is the reduction in youth offending rates over recent years. Many young people are also actively involved in community and civic life:

  • 47.1% of secondary school students reported giving time to help others in their school or community in the past 12 months.[22]
  • 78.0% of young people (aged 18-24 years) enrolled and voted in the 2020 New Zealand General Election.[23]

Analysis of outcomes for tamariki and rangatahi Māori

Around 23% of children and young people in New Zealand identify as Māori. The median age is 24 years compared to a median age of 41 for the European population. Most Māori are affiliated with one iwi, but around 38 percent are affiliated to multiple iwi. Around 18 percent of Māori children and young people have an unknown iwi affiliation.[24]

Government has a responsibility to meet the needs of tamariki and rangatahi Māori as tangata whenua (the Strategy's principles reflect Māori interests, as tangata whenua, and recognise the Māori-Crown relationship is foundational). Fully delivering on the Strategy includes "transforming systems, policies and services to work better for Māori, supporting Māori to deliver solutions for Māori, and empowering local communities to make the changes that work for them".[25]

It also means addressing equity and reducing the significant disparities between Māori and Pākehā across several domains of child and youth wellbeing. The Strategy will only be successfully implemented when outcomes for Māori children and young people improve significantly in almost every area.

Some examples of initiatives underway that reflect the Māori-Crown relationship commitment include:

  • Ngā Tini Whetū, a collaborative (Oranga Tamariki, Te Puni Kōkiri, ACC, and the Whānau Ora Commissioning Agency) whānau-centred initiative that will see additional early support offered to 800 whānau across the North Island to lift child and whānau wellbeing and resilience.
  • Paiheretia te Muka Tāngata, a kaupapa that draws on the strengths of the Whānau Ora approach to support young Māori and their whānau who are engaged in the Corrections system to develop their own pathways to achieve their aspirations. This collaborative approach involves Te Puni Kōkiri, Ara Poutama Aotearoa – Department of Corrections and the Ministry of Social Development working in partnership with the Whānau Ora Commissioning Agency.
  • Intensive (Whānau) Response, a new model of intensive intervention for those at risk of entering care. Work on the design and implementation of large scale intensive whānau support services is progressing in collaboration with iwi, Māori and Pacific organisations and the wider community sector. The intervention will involve Oranga Tamariki partnering with iwi, hapū, Māori, Pacific and community organisations that reflect the whakapapa of the whānau and tamariki. Partnerships are underway with iwi and Māori organisations in Tokoroa, Christchurch East, Horowhenua and Ōtāhuhu.
  • Section 7AA sets out the practical commitments of the Chief Executive of Oranga Tamariki to the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi. This includes ensuring policies, practices and services seek to reduce disparities for tamariki and rangatahi Māori and have regard to mana tamaiti, whakapapa and whanaungatanga. Section 7AA requires the Chief Executive to develop strategic partnerships with iwi and Māori organisations. Oranga Tamariki had four partnership agreements at the end of June 2020 with Ngāpuhi, Waikato-Tainui, Ngāi Tahu, and Tūhoe.
  • Oranga Tamariki has partnered with iwi, Māori organisations and marae to provide Youth Justice services. This includes the award-winning Mahuru programme, led by Ngāpuhi, and the establishment of Whakatakapokai, a Youth Justice residence designed alongside iwi and Māori including Waikato-Tainui.

Summary of findings

In general, the available data indicates that tamariki and rangatahi Māori are experiencing inequitable outcomes across all the Strategy's outcome areas compared to the general population of children and young people. In some places the disparity is substantial.

In order to achieve the Strategy's vision of New Zealand being the best place in the world to be a child, there is a clear need to address these disparities in outcomes:

  • Tamariki and rangatahi Māori were substantially overrepresented in referrals for Oranga Tamariki investigation and had significantly higher rates of serious injuries. There also experienced much lower feelings of safety in neighbourhoods after dark.[26] They also had double the rate of attempted suicide.[27]
  • Tamariki Māori experienced significantly lower material wellbeing and higher material hardship than the overall child population. They also were more likely than the general child population to live in a low-income household and where dampness and/or mould are a major problem.[28]
  • There were lower levels of early learning participation and of regular school attendance for tamariki Māori.[29] The proportion of rangatahi Māori not in employment, education or training was higher than for the general population.[30] They experienced higher rates of discrimination and bullying and were also more likely to bully others.[31]
  • However, rangatahi Māori students had a higher sense of belonging than the overall student population. And close to half of Māori students reported giving time to help others in their school or community in the past 12 months.[32]

In the future, to improve data collection, we will be looking to include more strengths-based indicators and measures grounded in te ao Māori perspectives of wellbeing. These could significantly help guide future efforts to design effective approaches and monitor progress towards delivering outcomes for Māori.

Analysis of outcomes for Pacific children and young people

Pacific peoples represent a culturally and linguistically diverse population made up of more than 16 ethnic groups, including Samoan, Cook Islands Māori, Tongan, Niuean, Tokelauan, Fijian, and other Pacific peoples. Around 12.6% of children and young people (aged 0-17) in New Zealand identify as Pacific Peoples.[33] The total Pacific peoples' population in New Zealand is very young, with a median age of 23.4 years compared with 37.4 years for the total New Zealand population.[34]

Summary of findings

As with tamariki and rangatahi Māori, Pacific children and young people are experiencing inequitable outcomes across all the Strategy's outcomes compared to the general population of children and young people.

  • While Pacific children and young people experienced comparatively high family wellbeing, a high proportion of those notified to Oranga Tamariki were referred for further investigation.[35]
  • Pacific children and young people experienced high rates of child poverty: and were more likely to live in households with low income, lower material wellbeing; material hardship, and food insecurity. They were also more likely than children from any other ethnic group to live in households with a major problem with dampness and/or mould.[36]
  • Pacific children aged 0-14 had much higher rates of potentially avoidable hospitalisations, and those aged 15-24 reported lower psychological or mental distress compared to the overall population in that age group.[37] They also experienced higher discrimination rates and bullying.[38]
  • Pacific children and young people had lower participation in early childhood education, lower regular school attendance and lower engagement in employment, education or training than the overall population of children and young people.[39]
  • However, Pacific young people had a higher sense of belonging than the general population. They were also more likely to speak two or more languages – 26.1% compared to 15.7% of the general population of children.[40]
  • They also had significantly lower rates of binge drinking and marijuana use, and lower criminal offending than the overall population of 10-17-year-olds.[41]

Analysis of outcomes for Asian children and young people

Around 13% of children and young people identify with one or more Asian ethnicities (Chinese, Indian, Filipino, Korean, Japanese, Fijian Indian, Sri Lankan, Cambodian and 18 others including Other Asian), making it the third largest ethnic group in New Zealand. The median age for Asian people is 31.3 compared with 37.4 years for the total New Zealand population.[42]

Summary of findings

  • Asian students reported they have positive family relationships. However, they also reported that their family/whānau accepted them for who they are at a lower rate than the overall student population[43] and reported higher exposure to family violence.
  • While most Asian students felt safe at school, they also experienced high ethnic discrimination by teachers, police, health professionals and others. Overall, they were three times more likely than Pākehā students to experience any kind of ethnic discrimination[44] and experienced lower rates of feeling safe in their neighbourhood than Pākehā/European students.[45]
  • Asian children experienced higher material wellbeing[46], lower material hardship[47], higher food security[48] and better housing quality compared to children of any other ethnic group.[49] However, the proportion of Asian children living in low-income households (AHC50) was higher than the general population of children, and a greater proportion of Asian children lived in households with high housing costs.[50]
  • Most Asian secondary school students reported they have good or excellent health, but many reported significant rates of emotional and mental distress.[51] The proportion of Asian students who smoked weekly or more often, binge drank (at least once in the past 4 weeks), and used marijuana weekly or more often, was significantly lower than the overall student population.[52]
  • Significantly more Asian children (38.3%) speak two or more languages compared to the general population of children (15.7%).[53]

Analysis of outcomes for other ethnic groups

The information below relates to children and young people from the Middle Eastern/Latin American/African (MELAA) ethnic group. The median age for this population group is 31.3 compared with 37.4 years for the total New Zealand population.[54] There is limited data available for this group.

Summary of findings

  • In 2019/20, a higher proportion of Middle Eastern/Latin American/African (MELAA) children lived in low-income households after housing costs than children from any other ethnic group. MELAA children experienced similar levels of material hardship and material wellbeing to the general child population but lower housing affordability levels.[55]
  • 34.3% of MELAA children (under age 15) speak two or more languages compared to 15.7% of the general population of children.[56]

Analysis of outcomes for disabled children and young people

Disability includes a wide range of physical and mental health issues (e.g. sensorial, mobility, intellectual, learning, developmental, behavioural, psychological).[57]

In the year ending June 2020, 11.2% of children and young people (aged 0-17 years old) were disabled and 30.0% were living in disabled households.[58]

Summary of findings

  • In 2019/20, disabled children and children in disabled households were slightly more likely to live in low-income households, and significantly more likely to experience material hardship.[59]
  • Equally, disabled children[60] experienced lower material wellbeing and housing quality than non-disabled children[61].
  • Data from the Youth19 survey indicates that 6.1% of students who experienced bullying in the last 12 months, reported it was because of a disability or health issue.[62]

Impacts of COVID-19 on child and youth wellbeing

The wide-ranging impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have been deeply felt across the global community. New Zealand has been internationally recognised for the effectiveness of its response. However, we have not been spared significant disruption, especially to the lives and wellbeing of children and young people.

With its shared understanding of what is important for child and youth wellbeing, the Child and Youth Wellbeing Strategy framework provides a critical lens in Government's response to COVID-19. The actions Government has taken are summarised in Part Two of this report. Continuing to invest in the wellbeing of our children and young people will have significant long-term benefits for them and their families, our economy, and our broader society, long after COVID-19 has passed.

2019-20 timeline of activities

July 2019

  • Independent Children's Monitor established within the Ministry of Social Development
  • Increased weekly rate of parental leave payment
  • Increased funding to support deaf and hard-of-hearing students
  • Learning Support Action Plan 2019-25 announced

Aug 2019

  • Child and Youth Wellbeing Strategy launched
  • Free and Healthy School Lunch pilot programme announced
  • Vocational Education Reform Bill introduced
  • Expansion of mental health pilot Piki to reach more rural youth
  • Increased measures to help those facing homelessness
  • Expansion of the Mana in Mahi programme

Sept 2019

  • School Leavers' Toolkit launched
  • Equity Index announced to replace school deciles
  • Upgrade of the National Curriculum announced
  • NZ History to be taught in all schools by 2022

Oct 2019

  • Reform of the Tomorrow's Schools system announced
  • 27% increase in Trades Academy and Gateway places

Nov 2019

  • Sexual Violence Legislation Bill introduced
  • More than 1,500 schools signed up for donations scheme
  • New Languages Innovation Fund to support Pacific grassroots initiatives
  • Additional funding for mental health training for up to 12,000 people
  • NZ's first Suicide Prevention Office opens, alongside new Māori and Pacific suicide prevention community fund

Dec 2019

  • Registrations open for up to 600 new te reo advocates
  • Launch of The Early Learning Action Plan 2019-2029

Jan 2020

  • Boost in Whānau Ora funding
  • First tranche of new Learning Support Coordinators in schools

Feb 2020

  • New support for students with dyslexia
  • Vocational Education and Training Bill passed
  • Investment in He Poutama Rangatahi scheme targeting unemployed youth
  • Extension of Tupu Aotearoa programme, supporting more Pacific young people

Mar 2020

  • COVID-19 support package to ensure people have access to what they need
  • 6-month residential rent freeze
  • Wage subsidy scheme introduced

April 2020

  • Increasing main benefits by $25/week
  • Main benefits indexed to average wage
  • Increasing the minimum wage to $18.90/hour
  • Food and welfare support package
  • COVID-19 Leave Scheme Payment introduced

May 2020

  • Increased funding to support iwi and NGO partners providing early support
  • Increased financial support for caregivers announced
  • Funding to support online teaching and learning
  • Expansion of Whānau Protect
  • 2020 Winter Energy Payment doubled
  • Announcement the Free and Healthy School Lunch programme will be expanded to 200,000 students
  • Hōkai Rangi - Pre-Trial Service established
  • Initiatives to address housing pressures, including 8,000 new public and transitional homes over the next 4-5 years
  • Funding to strengthen the Family Court, including introduction of Family Court Legislation Bill
  • Increased funding to support Māori and Pacific young people to undertake training and study
  • Increased funding for the OCC and the Independent Children's Monitor

June 2020

  • COVID-19 Income Relief Payment
  • Free access to period products in schools announced
  • Keep it Real Online safety awareness campaign launched

Part two: Reporting on indicators and implementation: Progress by outcome area

Children and young people are loved, safe and nurtured

What this means

This outcome means that children and young people:

  • feel loved and supported
  • have family, whānau and homes that are loving, safe and nurturing
  • are safe from unintentional harm
  • are safe from intentional harm (including neglect, and emotional, physical and sexual abuse)
  • spend quality time with their parents, family and whānau.

Why this is important

The best place for a child is in the safe, loving and stable care of their family or whānau. A stable and quality home environment with love and trust influences a child and young person's wellbeing, learning and development, and their ability to form attachments to others. Lasting and nurturing relationships are critical to many other aspects of wellbeing and the building of resilience and social skills.

This outcome focuses on supporting families and whānau to provide safe, loving and nurturing homes, and preventing children and young people from experiencing abuse or neglect or being exposed to family or sexual violence.

Parents and families need quality time and the right headspace to develop strong connections with their children.

Some children and young people live in families with toxic stress and complex needs, such as the combined impacts of long-term unemployment, low income, unaddressed physical and mental health needs, parental alcohol and drug addiction, and family violence.

We want to ensure parents have the support, and help they need to reduce their stress burden, so they can be the best parent they can be.

How it will be measured

We have selected six indicators to measure progress in this outcome. Several of these are subjective wellbeing indicators, and draw on children and young people's experiences:

Feeling loved: During the development of the Strategy, having supportive family and friends was one of the main themes identified in children and young people's responses to the question 'what a good life means to them'. This indicator includes not only being loved, but feeling loved by their family, whānau and friends.

Family and whānau wellbeing: Children and young people told us that for them to be well, their family needs to be well. They also said that the wellbeing of their whānau, friends and other support people is critical to, and interwoven with, their wellbeing.

Quality time with parents: Children and young people told us about how they want to cook and have kai with their whānau, play with their cousins, see their grandparents and simply spend time with their parents, families and whānau. Parents and caregivers shared this sentiment and said they need the time and headspace to do this.

Harm against children: Harm can be physical, emotional and psychological. There are four forms of child abuse - physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. Children's exposure to violence, both as victims and as witnesses to family violence and sexual violence, can significantly impact their long-term wellbeing. Children and young people talked about the physical and emotional trauma caused by past events, such as the pain of being separated from their parents, living in a 'broken home', or experiencing violence in their home.

Feeling safe: This means feeling protected from unintended mishaps or accidents, as well as from deliberate dangers or threats, like crime. Feeling safe was often talked about in the context of protection from harm - in homes, schools and communities. Children and young people said that safety also meant being safe to express their individuality without fear of judgment, rejection or harassment. Adults talked about children and young people needing safe environments and welcoming spaces to grow, learn and play together and as individuals.

Serious injuries: This refers to physical injuries that can be unintentional or the result of self-harm or assault. While children can never be entirely protected from injury, a significant proportion of serious unintentional injuries are preventable, or the severity of injury could be reduced.[63]

Key actions and progress

This section summarises progress in the year ending June 2020 on key actions under Strategy for the outcome 'Children and young people are loved, safe and nurtured', grouped by that outcome's descriptors. More details are found at childyouthwellbeing.govt.nz/measuring-success/reporting

They feel loved and supported

Family Justice reforms

The first phase of actions in response to the review of the family justice system includes supporting families and whānau with early legal advice and information and enhancing children's participation. Next steps: progression of legislation to enhance child wellbeing in care-of-children proceedings.

They have family, whānau and homes that are loving, safe and nurturing

Enhanced Well Child Tamariki Ora (WCTO) pilots (nurse-led family partnership model)

These pilots provide an enhanced model of support for parents and whānau with additional support needs, until a child is two years old. Further action since July 2020: Launch of the first pilot in Rotorua in Lakes DHB (December 2020), the second pilot in Counties Manukau DHB (February 2021), and the final pilot in Hauora Tairawhiti (July 2021).

Expand coverage of Whānau Ora

Budgets 2019 and 2020 provided funding to expand Whānau Ora, which supports tamariki and rangatahi within the context of their whānau, to achieve their aspirations and lift overall wellbeing.

Ngā Tini Whetū prototype

A cross-agency, whānau-centred programme to reduce the number of tamariki Māori showing early signs of risk for state intervention. Further action since July 2020: Launch in partnership with the Whānau Ora Commissioning Agency in September 2020, with full rollout to approximately 800 whānau by mid-2021.

Oranga Tamariki Action Plan (OTAP)

The Plan will set out how the children's agencies will work together to improve the wellbeing of core populations of interest to Oranga Tamariki, in line with the Child and Youth Wellbeing Strategy. Next steps: Work is underway on a strategy for the future of the children's system to ensure it best meets the needs and supports the wellbeing of children. OTAP will contribute to putting this new direction into action.

Intensive (Whānau) Response – new model of intensive intervention for those at risk of entering care

Work is progressing on the design and implementation of large scale intensive whānau support services where a child is at risk of going into care. Further action since July 2020: An iwi-led intensive intervention model was launched in Tokoroa in August 2020. Design work with iwi and Māori partners is underway in other regions, along with a joint partnership with Oranga Tamariki in Christchurch East and an overall strategy for expanding Intensive (Whānau) Response across Tāmaki Makaurau.

They are able to spend quality time with their parents, family and whānau

Extend paid parental leave to 26 weeks

Paid parental leave increased to 22 weeks from 1 July 2018. Further action from July 2020: Increase to 26 weeks from 1 July 2020, alongside an increase of $20 per week to the maximum weekly payment.

They are safe from intentional harm

Family violence and sexual violence work programme

Budgets 2019 and 2020 provided funding for a range of actions focused on preventing and eliminating family violence and sexual violence. A key action is development of a national strategy and action plan, which will set a clear direction for a collective commitment to reduce violence, clarify the most critical strategic objectives, and identify the actions required across the system. Next steps: Engagement on the strategy and action plan is from May 2021.

They are safe from unintentional harm

Reduce speed limits around schools

The Tackling Unsafe Speeds programme, a key action under the Road to Zero strategy, will include lowering the speed limit around schools to a maximum of 40kmh in urban areas and 60kmh in rural areas, to make it safer for children to walk and cycle to school.

What the indicators are telling us

Feeling loved

Not yet available

Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) who feel they are loved by the people who look after or care for them.

Family & whānau wellbeing

Not yet available

Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) rating their families as doing well.

In the June quarter of 2020, 83.0% of young people (aged 18-24 years) rated their family wellbeing as high.[64]

In the same period, 76.9% of Māori young people rated their family wellbeing as high; for Pacific young people this was 82.7%.

87.8% of parents with dependent children rated their family wellbeing as high.[65]

Quality time with parents

Not yet available

Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) who feel they get to spend enough time with the people who look after or care for them.

Harm against children

In 2019/20, 51.1% of children and young people with notifications to Oranga Tamariki were referred for further assessment or investigation. [66]

The number of children and young people referred for further assessment or investigation slightly decreased, from 41,733 in 2018/19 to 41,364 in 2019/20.

The total numbers of Māori and Pacific children referred for further assessment or investigation also decreased slightly. In 2019/20, 22,701 Māori children and young people (53.8% of those notified) were referred for further assessment or investigation compared with 22,934 (51.6% of those notified) in 2018/19.

In 2019/20, 6,367 Pacific children and young people (61.6% of those notified) were referred for further assessment or investigation compared with 7,038 (56.4% of those notified) in 2018/19.[67] 

Not yet available

Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) that in the last 12 months have been hit or physically hurt, or they have seen others in the home being hit or physically hurt by adults in the places where they usually live.

Feeling safe

Not yet available

Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) who feel safe (at school, at home, at work, online, in the community, where they live).

Serious injuries

In 2019, there were 122.9 serious injuries per 100,000 children (aged 0-24 years).[68]

There were 92.7 serious injuries per 100,000 children (aged 0-17 years) and 204.3 per 100,000 young people (aged 18-24 years).

There were 164.9 serious injuries per 100,000 Māori children (ages 0-24). The serious injuries rate for Māori children (ages 0-17) was 130.1 and for young people (aged 18-24 years) was 292.8 per 100,000.

There was an overall increase in serious injuries between 2018 and 2019. In 2018, the rate of serious injuries (ages 0-24 years) was 116.9 per 100,000 children and young people, 87 per 100,000 children (aged 0-17 years) and 197.4 per 100,000 young people (aged 18-24 years).[69]

724 deaths were reported in 2018 for children and young people (aged 0 to 24 years).[70]

This included 383 deaths in the 0-14 age group and 341 in those aged 15-24 years.

Of the 724 deaths, 246 were Māori (34%) and 81 were Pacific (11%) children and young people.

Death numbers by gender show significant differences in those aged 15-24 years: 70% were male (240) and 30% were female (101). In all ethnic groups, male deaths outnumber female. For Pacific people this difference is even wider (18% female and 82% male).[71]

 

What else do we know?

Given the limited baseline data available for this outcome, we have included data from some supplementary sources to provide a snapshot of how children and young people are doing in certain areas.

Feeling loved

The Youth19 survey asked secondary students about their relationship with their family. 76.8% of students agreed or strongly agreed that there is someone in their family/whānau who they can trust to share they feelings with. Māori and Pacific students had very similar percentages.[72]

In the same survey, 86.7% of students agreed or strongly agreed there was someone in their family/whānau who they have a close bond with. This proportion was similar for Māori students (87.9%) and slightly higher for Pacific students (90.9%).[73]

In the earlier Youth12 survey, 81.2% of secondary school students said that their "mother and/or father is warm and loving most of the time". Young people living in high deprivation areas were less likely to say that their parents were warm and loving and less likely to get enough time with their parents. There were no statistically significant differences for Māori compared to non-Māori.[74]

The 2015 PISA survey recorded the percentage of 15-year-olds who talk with their parents before and after school. New Zealand ranked 10 out of the 35 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries.[75]

Family and whānau wellbeing

The 2018 General Social Survey asked people (15 years and over) to rate their family wellbeing on a scale where 0 is doing extremely badly and 10 is doing extremely well. 84.1% of parents with dependent children reported their family wellbeing as doing well (7 or higher). The percentage of young people (18-24) that reported their family wellbeing as doing well was 78.3%. Reported levels of family wellbeing for Māori and Pacific young people were 66.6% and 79.5% respectively.[76]

Te Kupenga 2018, Stats NZ's survey of the social, cultural, and economic wellbeing of Māori in New Zealand, asked about whānau wellbeing. Data shows that 77.3% of children and young people (aged 15-24 years), rated their whānau wellbeing between 7 or higher on a scale where 0 is doing extremely badly and 10 is doing extremely well, with a mean rating of 7.5.[77]

Quality time with parents

In the Youth19 survey, 72.3% of secondary students agreed or strongly agreed that they get enough quality time with their family/whānau. The proportion for Māori and Pacific students was 65.5% and 76.1% respectively.[78]

A similar question was asked in the Youth12 survey. More than half of secondary school students said that they didn't get to spend as much time as they would like with their mother and/or father – 48.8% said that they got enough time with their mother most of the time, 37.3% got enough time with their father most of the time, and 58.3% got enough time with at least one parent most of the time.[79]

Harm against children

In the Youth19 survey, 11.2% of secondary students reported having witnessed physical violence towards children or adults in their home in the previous 12 months. Rates for Māori and Pacific students were 18% and 22.6%, respectively. The Youth19 survey reported that 10% of students have been hit or physically hurt by an adult at home in the last 12 months. Rates for Māori and Pacific students were 14.1% and 19.6%, respectively.[80]

Earlier data from the Youth12 survey showed 7.4% of students had witnessed adults in their home hitting or physically hurting each other, and 14.1% had been hit or physically harmed on purpose by an adult at home in the last 12 months.[81]

Data on parents' use of physical punishment on their children, from the 2019/20 New Zealand Health Survey, also provides relevant information regarding harm against children (aged 0–14 years). It looked at children's experience of physical punishment in the past 4 weeks (child's parent or caregiver used physical punishment, such as smacking, when their child misbehaved). Results shows that 4.5% of respondents used physical punishment with their children. Māori and Pacific children were more likely to experience physical punishment than non-Māori and Pacific children (6.6% and 8.0%, respectively).[82]

Feeling safe

In the Youth19 survey, most secondary students reported positive school environments with 87.1% feeling safe at school all or most of the time. The rates for Māori and Pacific students were 83.5% and 86.4%, respectively.

58.8% of students reported lower feelings of safety in their neighbourhood all of the time. Māori and Pacific students reported 56.8% and 50.7%, respectively. 85.5% of male students felt safe at school most or all the time, compared to 88.6% of female students. However, only 53.3% of female students felt safe in their neighbourhood, compared to 64.6% of male students.[83]

Data from the Youth12 survey was similar for those who felt safe at school and in their neighbourhood.[84] There were no statistically significant differences by socioeconomic status, or for Māori compared to Pākehā, for feeling safe at school all or most of the time. However, young people in high deprivation areas were less likely to feel safe and Māori were more likely to feel safe in their neighbourhood all the time compared to other young people.[85]

The COVID-19 supplement in the 2020/21 Household Labour Force Survey included a question on safety and security. It asked young people (aged 18-24 years) if they feel safe when walking alone in the neighbourhood after dark. In the June 2020 quarter responses, 70.5% of young people felt safe and very safe. The proportion for Māori and Pacific young people was 59.6% and 67.3%, respectively.[86]

In comparison, the 2018 General Social Survey data on safety and security shows that just 60.1% of young people (aged 18-24 years) felt safe when walking alone in the neighbourhood after dark. The proportion for Māori and Pacific young people was 62.7% and 69.5%, respectively.[87]

Serious injuries

In 2019, there were a total of 1,053 serious non-fatal injuries in the 0-17 age group. 37% of these were Māori children. In the 18-24 age group, there were 951 serious non-fatal injuries. 30.9% of these were Māori young people.[88]

In 2019, 13.3 children (aged 0-14) per 100,000 had a serious non-fatal injury due to motor vehicle traffic crashes. In the same year, the rate for serious non-fatal injuries due to intentional harm was 4.4 children (aged 0-14 years) per 100,000.[89]

Next steps

To help ensure all children and young people feel loved, safe and nurtured, we will continue to focus on major strategic shifts to better support children in care and to eliminate family and sexual violence in New Zealand.

Following consultation, we will develop the National Strategy and Action Plan for eliminating family violence and sexual violence to transform our current system and enable communities to lead responses to family violence and sexual violence in partnership with government.

We will complete the Oranga Tamariki Action Plan to better support children and young people who are at risk of harm, or currently or previously involved in the care and protection or youth justice systems. We will also extend whānau ora approaches across government to put whānau at the centre of support.

Children and young people have what they need

What this means

This outcome means that:

  • they, and their parents / caregivers, have a good standard of material wellbeing
  • they have regular access to nutritious food
  • they live in stable housing that is affordable, warm and dry
  • their parents / caregivers have the skills and support they need to access quality employment.

Why this is important

All children and young people deserve to grow up in families and whānau that have the resources they need to thrive. Many families lack the resources to meet their basic material needs and are excluded from a minimum acceptable standard of living. This outcome aligns closely with the Government's focus on reducing child poverty.

The experience of poverty can involve various forms of hardship, such as going hungry, living in cold, damp houses, and foregoing opportunities that many take for granted, like birthday parties or joining a sports team.

Evidence shows that the experience of poverty in childhood, especially when that experience is severe and/or persistent, can have negative lifelong impacts. Children may be more likely, on average, to experience poorer educational outcomes, poorer health, and have more difficulty finding work in adulthood. The harmful effects also impact on society as a whole.

This outcome focuses on reducing child poverty by improving the material wellbeing of households in poverty and hardship. This focus has the potential to break the cycle of disadvantage and intergenerational poverty and improve many other wellbeing outcomes.

How it will be measured

We have selected five indicators to measure progress in this outcome. Several of these indicators are also Child Poverty Reduction Indicators.

Material wellbeing: Good material wellbeing means having the basics and "a little bit more". During the development of the Strategy, we heard about the need to ensure children and young people have the basics – having a place to live, having enough food and being able to cope with any unexpected demands on the household budget. Children and young people also talked about having enough money left to have a treat occasionally, or to be able to do non-essential activities.

Child poverty: Children and young people told us about their parents being in insecure work, which can mean going from work to the benefit (and having times with no money in between). They also talked about missing out on opportunities, and about their parents being stressed about money a lot and being embarrassed when they can't pay for stuff.

Food insecurity: This means not having reliable access to sufficient safe and nutritious food to lead a healthy and productive life and meet cultural needs. Food security is essential for children and young people to be happy and healthy, and to learn and grow. Children and young people living in food insecure households are less likely to achieve their optimal growth and development, which can have immediate and long-term negative consequences for their health and education.

Housing quality: In addition to its impact on immediate wellbeing, living in low quality housing makes children and young people more likely to experience poor health, including respiratory illnesses and infections. There is a strong relationship between poor quality housing and poverty. The majority of lower-income families are living in rental accommodation which offers less security and stability and is often of poorer quality.

Housing affordability: Unaffordable housing often leaves families with insufficient money to cover basic household needs such as adequate nutrition, heating, clothing, and transport costs. The additional financial stress and burden of unaffordable housing on parents can negatively impact parental relationships, and parental mental health, which can in turn influence their children's health and developmental outcomes.

Key actions and progress

This section summarises progress in the year ending June 2020 on key actions under the Strategy for the outcome 'Children and young people have what they need', grouped by that outcome's descriptors. More details are found at childyouthwellbeing.govt.nz/measuring-success/reporting

They and their parents or caregivers have a good standard of material wellbeing

Overhaul the welfare system

Cabinet has endorsed short, medium, and long-term work programmes in a multi-year overhaul. Work to date has included a focus on reviewing the foundations of the welfare system, ensuring everyone has their full and correct entitlements, increasing accessibility to supports, for example, through online channels, improving support for targeted groups, and enhancing the community sector.

Index main benefits to wages and increase benefits

In Budget19 we invested in indexing main benefits to increases in wage growth from 1 April each year. Benefits were also permanently increased by $25 per week. Changes took effect from 1 April 2020. As a result of this people on a benefit received an increase of 3.1% on 1 April 2021, over double what they would have got through former indexation using the Consumer Price Index (CPI).

Reducing costs associated with schooling

Budget 2019 provided funding to Decile 1-7 State and State-integrated schools to receive $150 per student per year if they stop requesting donations from parents and caregivers. 90% of eligible schools have opted into the scheme. NCEA fees were also removed.

They have regular access to nutritious food

Ka Ora, Ka Ako: Free and Healthy School Lunch programme

A prototype was implemented in a small number of schools from Term 1 2020. Government also announced a major expansion through the COVID-19 Response and Recovery Fund to reach around 200,000 students in schools with the highest disadvantage across New Zealand during 2021. Further action from July 2020: The programme is expected to reach 215,000 students in over 950 schools by the end of Term 2 2021.

They live in stable housing that is affordable, warm and dry

New public housing places

Government committed to 6,400 additional public housing places by 2022. Between 1 July 2019 and May 2020, the number of public houses increased by a net of 1,705 to 71,022. Budget 2020 provided funding for an additional 6,000 public housing homes.

Residential Tenancies Act 1986 reform

This reform has the primary objective of modernising New Zealand's rental laws to increase tenants' security of tenure, while maintaining adequate protection of landlords' interests. It includes a range of law changes, taking effect from August 2020 and February 2021.

Homelessness Action Plan

Government released the Aotearoa New Zealand Homelessness Action Plan (2020-2023) in February 2020 to prevent and reduce homelessness. In response to COVID-19, agencies brought forward longer-term actions in the plan, including an increased focus on at-risk groups, including rangatahi/young people.

Their parents or caregivers have the skills and support they need to access quality employment

Increase employment support through the Ministry of Social Development

Budget 2019 provided funding to increase case management at the frontline, to help more people into work. Funding allowed an additional 170 FTEs in 2019/20, increasing to 263 in 2020/21. People exiting benefit into employment for July to December 2019 was 13% higher for same time period the previous year. Further action from July 2020: In 2021 we expanded Flexi-Wage to support an additional 40,000 New Zealanders into employment.

Support for disabled people and people with health conditions

This initiative supports people with disabilities and health conditions to find and stay in meaningful employment, increase their knowledge and skills, and improve their health and wider wellbeing. This includes funding to continue and build on existing programmes, such as Oranga Mahi, and to develop new services.

What the indicators are telling us

Material wellbeing

In 2019/20, 84.9% of children (aged 0-17 years) lived in households experiencing good material wellbeing.[90]

The proportions for Māori and Pacific children living in households experiencing good material wellbeing during the same period were 75.6% and 63.4%, respectively.

In 2018/19, 81.7% of children (aged 0-17 years) lived in households experiencing good material wellbeing. The proportions for Māori and Pacific children were 71,0% and 61.4%, respectively.[91]

Child poverty

In 2019/20, 13.8% of children (aged 0-17 years) lived in households with low income before housing costs (BHC).[92]

17.1% of all Māori children lived in households with low income BHC; for Pacific children, this proportion was 19.1%.

In the same period, of the 1,144,200 children in the country, 157,800 lived in households with low income BHC. Of those, 49,500 were Māori children and 28,000 were Pacific children.[93]

In 2019/20, 18.4% of children (aged 0-17 years) lived in households with low income after housing costs (AHC).[94]

21.1% of Māori children and 21.0% Pacific children lived in households with low income AHC.

Of the 1,144,200 children in the country, 210,500 lived in households with low income AHC. Of those, 61,000 were Māori children and 30,700 were Pacific children.[95]

In 2019/20, 11.3% of children (aged 0-17 years) lived in households experiencing material hardship.[96]

19.5% of all Māori children lived in households experiencing material hardship; for Pacific children, this proportion was 26.1%.

In the same period, of the 1,142,300[97] children in the country, 129,600 lived in households experiencing material hardship. Of those, 56,300 were Māori children and 38,000 were Pacific children.[98]

Food security

In 2019/20, 19.8% of children (aged 0-15 years) lived in households where food runs out sometimes or often, with 4.3% reporting often.[99]

The proportions of Māori and Pacific children living in houses where food runs out sometimes or often were 29.6% and 45.8%, respectively.

The proportions of Māori and Pacific children living in houses where food runs out often were 7.8% and 10%, respectively.[100]

Housing quality

In 2019/20, 6.9% of children (aged 0-17 years) lived in households with a major problem with dampness or mould.[101]

Housing quality issues are more acute for Māori and Pacific children. 11.1% of Māori children and 16.9% of Pacific children lived in households with a major problem with damp or mould. In 2018/19, 7.9% of all children (aged 0-17 years) lived in households with a major problem with dampness or mould. Housing quality issues were more acute for Māori children (13.3%), and Pacific children (20.3%).[102]

Housing affordability

In 2019/20, 36.3% of households with children (aged 0-17 years) spent more than 30% of their disposable income on housing.[103]

31.8% of Māori households with children spent more than 30% of their disposable income on housing; in the case of Pacific households, this was 33.6%. The rates for disabled children, or households with at least one disabled person, were 35.2% and 32.9%, respectively.

In 2018/19, 34.8% of households with children (aged 0-17 years) spent more than 30% of their disposable income on housing. In the case of Māori and Pacific households, the rates were 32.3% and 27.9%, respectively.[104]

  

What else do we know?

Given the limited baseline data available for this outcome, we have included data from some supplementary sources to provide a snapshot of how children and young people are doing in certain areas.

Material wellbeing

In 2019/20, 89.8% of young people (aged 18-24 years) lived in households experiencing good material wellbeing.

The proportions of Māori and Pacific young people living in households experiencing good material wellbeing during the same period were 83.1% and 72.1%, respectively.[105]

Child poverty

From the 2017/18 baseline for the child poverty targets to the most recent Stats NZ release for 2019/20, there were reductions on all three primary measures of child poverty:

  • the before-housing-costs low income measure reduced by 25,600 children
  • the after-housing-costs low income measure reduced by 43,300 children
  • the material hardship measure reduced by 18,000 children.

The Child Poverty Reduction Act also requires reporting on a further six supplementary measures, each with different depths and levels of severity. According to 2019/20 rates, 51,600 children (4.5%) are living in severe material hardship. Of these, around half (26,700) are Māori children and a third are Pacific. Close to one in five children in severe material hardship are disabled.

Food insecurity

In 2019/20, a total of 190,515 children (aged 0-15 years) were living in houses where food runs out sometimes or often. Of those, 71,738 were Māori children and 59,976 Pacific children.[106]

For children aged 2-14, only 44.1% met the Ministry of Health's vegetable intake guidelines and their fruit intake guidelines.[107] Pacific children were less likely than the overall population to have adequate vegetable and fruit intake, with only 26.2% meeting the intake recommendations.[108]

Housing quality

Housing quality issues are pronounced when looking at the data by tenure, with a significant proportion of children living in rentals reporting a major problem with dampness or mould (14.2% in 2019/20), compared with households living in owner-occupied dwellings (1.6%).[109]

Te Kupenga 2018 data shows the proportion of tamariki and rangatahi Māori (aged 15-24 years) who live in a house or flat that is always damp (7.1%) or sometimes damp (32.0%). The proportions living in a house or flat that is always or sometimes mouldy were 10.6% and 22.7%, respectively. Finally, regarding household crowding, 20.7% lived in a crowded home where one or more extra bedrooms are required.[110]

Growing Up in New Zealand survey data shows that at eight years old, one third of the children lived in rental accommodation, with many in damp and cold homes. The survey also found that the current generation of children is highly mobile – only one in five of all the children in the study had not moved homes at least once by the time they were eight years old.[111]

Housing affordability

The current figures for housing affordability are broadly aligned with the average for the preceding decade, but it is important to understand these figures within the context of longer-run trends for housing affordability.

These trends show that the proportion of all households (excluding superannuitant households) with housing costs greater than 30% of their income increased from around one in seven (14%) in the late 1980s to around one in three (35%) in the late 2000s, where it has broadly remained since. For households with the lowest incomes, the proportion with high outgoing-to-income-ratios continued to rise across the 2010s.

There are also likely to be particular groups who face worsening affordability outcomes that are not picked up by the measures. In particular, until 2018 beneficiaries living in private rental accommodation were likely to have faced rents that increased in real terms, while incomes remained broadly flat.[112]

Next steps

Our major work programme to overhaul the welfare system includes short, medium and long-term measures that will help ensure all children and young people grow up in families and whānau that have the resources they need to thrive.

We are rolling out the expanded Ka Ora, Ka Ako Free and Healthy School Lunch programme to provide regular access to nutritious food to over 215,000 students across New Zealand.

We will also continue work to support communities to become food secure and work with the New Zealand Food Network to distribute bulk surplus and donated food to food rescue initiatives and foodbanks.

We are working on a package of housing measures, including partnering with Māori through the Māori and Iwi Housing Innovation framework to support the implementation of the Homelessness Action Plan, repair and maintain homes, and build papakāinga.

The expansion of the Healthy Homes Initiative will improve the quality of housing to prevent childhood hospitalisations.

Children and young people are happy and healthy

What this means

This outcome means that children and young people:

  • have the best possible health, starting before birth
  • build self-esteem and resilience
  • have good mental wellbeing and recover from trauma
  • have spaces and opportunities to play and express themselves creatively
  • live in healthy, sustainable environments.

Why this is important

The key to happy and healthy young people is strong, healthy connections to people who love and nurture them. Good parental mental health is important during and after pregnancy, so parents can establish a deep and loving connection with their baby.

Children and young people also need time and spaces just to be themselves, to play, explore and create. Good physical and mental health support other aspects of wellbeing, such as the ability to participate in activities and benefit from learning, positive social interactions and developing resilience.

The focus in this outcome is to improve infant and child health outcomes, including early years support services, and child and youth mental wellbeing.

How it will be measured

We have selected five indicators to measure progress in this outcome. Some of these are subjective wellbeing indicators, and draw on young people's experiences:

Subjective health status: A self-reported measure provides a more holistic picture of an individual's health status than combining single, objective measures. It brings together the multiple strands of health into a single question: "In general, would you say your health is…?". Respondents apply their own interpretation of (general) health.

Mental wellbeing: Good mental health and wellbeing is integral to positive emotions, social interactions and resilience to stress. Young people talked about their, or their friends' experiences of depression, feelings of insecurity, negativity, self-doubt, or significant and overwhelming feelings of anxiety about exams, uncertainty about their future and much more. This kind of psychological distress takes a toll on individual mental wellbeing and is a risk factor for mental illness.

Self-harm and suicide: Self-harm is often seen as a coping mechanism – a way to deal with stress or anxiety, as a distraction from negative thoughts, or as a cry for help. Frequent factors in youth suicide include poor family relationships, drug and alcohol abuse, low self-esteem and family violence. A small number of young people told us about their suicidal thoughts. They talked about feeling rejected, and not being able to express themselves or have safe spaces where they felt like they belong.

Potentially avoidable hospitalisations: These include illnesses and injuries that can be pre-empted through more effective primary health care services, or broader public health and social policy interventions. Potentially avoidable hospitalisation is strongly linked to socio-economic status, with children in poverty experiencing a particularly heavy burden of respiratory diseases, skin conditions, tooth decay and vaccine preventable illnesses. Children and young people talked about the importance of being able to go to the doctor or the dentist when they need to. Adults talked about needing more affordable and accessible health services, particularly for rural communities and disadvantaged children.

Prenatal wellbeing: Antenatal care helps to ensure pregnant people get the support and education they need to make positive choices for the healthy development of their baby. Early engagement with a lead maternity carer (LMC) also enables opportunities for screening, education and referral, and begins the primary continuity of care relationship between a pregnant person and their LMC.

Key actions and progress

This section summarises progress in the year ending June 2020 on key actions under the Strategy for the outcome 'Children and young people are happy and healthy', grouped by that outcome's descriptors. More details are found at childyouthwellbeing.govt.nz/measuring-success/reporting.

They have the best possible health, starting before birth

Maternity Action Plan

The Government is undertaking a five-year programme to ensure New Zealand's maternity system is equitable, effective and sustainable. Budget 2020 invested $24.2 million over four years in maternity services and service improvements.

Review of the Well Child Tamariki Ora programme

The review has been completed to assess the extent to which the programme meets the needs of children and their whānau, and to ensure the programme is financially sustainable and delivering the best possible outcomes. Next steps: Government is considering its response to the review findings.

Healthy Active Learning

This is a new initiative to support schools, kura and early learning settings with healthy eating and quality physical activity. The first phase is under way with employment of regional leads and advisors and the Tapuwaekura Leadership Group has been established to support equitable outcomes for Māori.

They build self-esteem and resilience

Promote wellbeing in primary and intermediate schools

Planned work was reconfigured due to COVID-19 to develop resilience-building resources for parents to use at home with children (Sparklers at Home). Next steps: Work on school-based resources will recommence in 2020/21.

They have good mental wellbeing and recover from trauma

Expand access and choice of primary mental health and addiction support

Budget 2019 invested $455 million over four years to expand access and choice of primary and community mental health and addiction services. Youth is one of the four key workstreams for this work, and procurement is in the final stages.

Extend nurses in schools (School-Based Health Services)

Government has extended School-Based Health Services (SBHS) – which provide free access to primary health care, including mental health, to secondary school students in deciles 1-5. Next steps: The Ministry of Health is developing a work programme to enhance SBHS, supported by a National Youth Health Leadership Group, a DHB working group, an evaluation and quality improvement provider, and the Ministry of Education. Collaboration and engagement with young people will also guide the work programme.

Strengthening Pacific Youth Mental Health and Resilience

A pilot programme is supporting Pacific young people to lead their own innovative initiatives to strengthen youth mental health and resilience. Next steps: Further youth-led workshops with Pacific communities.

They have spaces and opportunities to play and express themselves creatively

Creatives in Schools

This programme sees professional artists and creatives partner with schools and kura to share their knowledge and practice with students. Implementation is under way, with 510 projects being funded over four years.

Delivery of Strategy for Women and Girls in Sport and Recreation

This strategy has a strong focus on girls and young women. Sport NZ launched two new funds under the strategy, for community organisations to encourage young women aged 12-18 to stay active and develop their leadership skills.

They live in healthy, sustainable environments

Local Government (Community Wellbeing) Amendment Bill

Government passed legislation to restore the four 'wellbeings' to the statutory purpose of local government. This acknowledges local government's valuable role in promoting wellbeing, including child and youth wellbeing.

What the indicators are telling us

Prenatal wellbeing

54,311 people registered with Lead Maternity Carers (LMCs) over the course of their pregnancy in 2018.[113]

Of those, 24.9% (13,539) were Māori and 9.1% (4,920) were Pacific.[114]

In 2018, 72.7% of pregnant people were registered with LMCs or accessed Primary Maternity Services in their first trimester (39,457).[115]

59.7% of Māori (8,088) were registered with LMCs or accessed Primary Maternity Services in their first trimester. 46.7% of Pacific (2,300) were registered with LMCs or accessed Primary Maternity Services in their first trimester.[116]

In 2018, 9.4% of people giving birth were smoking two weeks after the birth of their child.[117]

This means a total of 4,994 of people were smoking two weeks after giving birth to their child.

The proportion of Māori people giving birth and smoking two weeks after the birth of their child was 25%. This proportion was significantly lower for Pacific people – 6%.[118]

Subjective health status

Not yet available*

Percentage of young people (aged 12-18 years) reporting their health as good, very good, or excellent.

In 2019/20, 90.5% of 15-24-year olds reported good, very good or excellent health.[119]

The proportion of Māori children and young people who rated their health as good, very good, or excellent was 85%. For Pacific children and young people, it was 85.3%.[120]

Potentially avoidable hospitalisations

In 2019/20 the rate of potentially avoidable hospitalisations in 0-14-year olds was 49 per 1,000.[121]

This rate was higher for Māori and Pacific children – 56 and 72.1 respectively.

Potentially avoidable hospitalisations in children and young people (15-24) was lower, 34.8 per 1,000. The rate for Māori and Pacific in this age group was 45.9 and 43.6, respectively.[122]

Mental wellbeing

In 2019/20, 11.1% of 15-24-year olds reported psychological or mental distress in the past four weeks.[123]

The proportion of Māori children and young people who reported psychological, or mental distress (e.g. experience of symptoms such as anxiety, psychological fatigue, or depression) in the past four weeks was 14.5%; for Pacific children and young people it was 8.4%.[124]

Not yet available*

Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) that in the last 30 days felt nervous, hopeless, restless or fidgety and/or so depressed that nothing could cheer them up. 

Self-harm and suicide

Not yet available*

Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) that in the last 12 months: i) deliberately hurt themselves or did anything they knew might harm them and/or ii) tried to kill themselves.

18.69 per 100,000 was the suicide rate for 15-19-year olds in 2019/2020 (59 young people took their own life).[125]

Children (aged 10-14 years) had the lowest suicide rate across all age groups with a rate of 1.86 per 100,000. The female suicide rate in this age group was double the male suicide rate (2.46 compared to 1.16 per 100,000). Young people (aged 20-24 years) had a rate of 17.77 suicides per 100,000, compared to the national suicide rate of 13.01.[126] 

(*) Data not yet available – will be drawn from the 2021 Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey - WhatAboutMe?   

What else do we know?

To complement the available data for this outcome, we have included supplementary data to provide a snapshot of how children and young people are doing in certain areas.

Prenatal wellbeing

Premature babies[127], especially those born very early, often have complicated medical problems. In, 2018, the proportion of pre-term births was 7.5% for the general population and 8.1% and 7.2% for Māori and Pacific respectively.[128]

Subjective health status

The New Zealand Health Survey provides relevant data for children (aged 0-14 years). 97.4% of this age group were reported by their parent or caregiver to be in good, very good or excellent health. There were no statistically significant differences in data for Māori and Pacific children overall. However, for Maori and Pacific boys, data indicates a lower rate of being in good, very good or excellent health, compared to non-Maori or non-Pacific boys.[129]

Internationally, New Zealand has the second highest obesity rate (more than 1 in 3 children are obese or overweight) in 41 European Union and OECD countries (the United States has the highest).[130] New Zealand sits exactly at the OECD average for adolescents who report regularly engaging in vigorous physical activity outside of school.[131]

Potentially avoidable hospitalisations

Administrative data from the Ministry of Health[132] shows that in 2019/20, the rate of potentially avoidable hospitalisations for intentional injuries in 0-14-year olds was 0.6 per 1,000. Pacific children have the same rate, but for Māori the rate was higher (0.9 per 1,000).

Potentially avoidable hospitalisations for intentional injuries in those aged 15-24 years old was higher; 6.8 per 1,000. The rate for Māori and Pacific in this age group was 10.3 and 6.4, respectively.

The rate of potentially avoidable hospitalisations for unintentional injuries in 0-14-year olds was 13.1 per 1,000. The rate for Māori and Pacific in this age group was 14.2 and 14.4, respectively.

Potentially avoidable hospitalisations for unintentional injuries for those aged 15-24 was slightly lower; 12.5 per 1,000. The rate for Māori and Pacific in this age group was 15.5 and 14.3, respectively.

The rate of potentially avoidable hospitalisations for non-injuries in 0-14-year olds was 35.3 per 1,000. The rate for Māori and Pacific in this age group was 40.9 and 57.1 respectively.

Potentially avoidable hospitalisations for non-injuries in those aged 15-24 was lower; 15.4 per 1,000. The rate for Māori and Pacific in this age group was 20.1 and 22.9, respectively.[133]

Mental wellbeing

In the Youth19 survey, 69.3% of students reported good emotional wellbeing[134] and 40.8% reported they were very happy or satisfied with life. Results for depressive symptoms[135] show that 22.7% of students reported significant symptoms of depression, with proportions for Māori and Pacific students 27.8% and 24.6% respectively.[136]

The New Zealand Health Survey also has relevant data on children's mental health (for 0-14 age group). The survey asks the child's parents or caregivers if they had ever been told by a doctor that the child has depression, anxiety disorder (this includes panic attacks, phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder), attention deficit disorder (ADD) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Six percent responded yes. 5.5% and 4.3% of parents or caregivers of Māori and Pacific children responded yes (respectively).[137]

Wellbeing Statistics from the June 2020 quarter shows that 83.9% of young people (aged 18-24) reported high life satisfaction (7 or higher on a scale where 0 is completely dissatisfied and 10 is completely satisfied).[138]

Self-harm and suicide

The Youth19 survey shows that overall, 6.3% of student participants had attempted suicide in the past 12 months, with rates for Māori and Pacific students 12.6% and 11.7%, respectively.[139]

New Zealand's overall suicide rate (13.01 deaths per 100,000 people for 2019/20)[140] is close to the OECD average, but its teenage rate is the second worst in the developed world (14.9 deaths per 100,000 adolescents) after Lithuania (18.2 deaths per 100,000 adolescents). This rate is more than twice the average among the 41 OECD countries surveyed (6.5 deaths per 100,000 adolescents).[141]

Next steps

To ensure children and young people have the best possible health from before birth we will continue the transformation of maternity, child health, development and wellbeing services. This will better support Māori and Pacific whānau and the health and wellbeing of all New Zealand children. We will maintain a focus on improving child and youth mental wellbeing. A key initiative this Government will be rolling out nation-wide over the next five years is Mana Ake, a holistic mental health programme supporting primary and intermediate school children.

Children and young people are learning and developing

What this means

This outcome means that children and young people:

  • are positively engaged with, progressing and achieving in education
  • develop the social, emotional and communication skills they need as they progress through life
  • have the knowledge, skills and encouragement to achieve their potential and enable choices around further education, volunteering, employment, and entrepreneurship
  • can successfully navigate life's transitions.

Why this is important

Learning opportunities and experiences develop children's social, cultural, emotional and cognitive competencies, including resilience, critical thinking and the ability to relate well to others.

While learning and development begins at home, quality education has an important role in supporting the development of knowledge, competencies and characteristics to be successful in life and to contribute to family, whānau, and communities.

The focus of this outcome is to improve access and equity in education and ensure no-one misses out. An immediate priority is children and young people who need extra support in the education system.

How it will be measured

We have selected six indicators to measure progress in this outcome:

Participation in early learning: Participation in high-quality early childhood education helps children to be confident and curious about the world and learn important skills, including foundation literacy, numeracy, and problem-solving skills. These benefits apply to all children but have been shown to have an even greater positive influence on children from lower socio-economic backgrounds.

Regular school attendance: Regular school attendance is important for student attainment and wellbeing, both in the short and long term. Sustained absence affects educational achievement and can lead to significantly diminished opportunities later in life. Children and young people talked about the importance of learning and education for future wellbeing. They highlighted the importance of feeling like they belong at school and having teachers who are kind and care about them.

Literacy, numeracy, and science skills: These are foundational for children and young people's current and future wellbeing. Reading literacy is the basis for achievement across nearly all subjects. Numeracy is also essential for a range of basic life skills such as keeping time, cooking, financial management, managing one's health, and making sense of information in the world. Science also has a major influence on many aspects of children and young people's daily lives.

Self-management skills: This means children and young people's ability to set and achieve goals, overcome challenges and control emotions and behaviour. Self-management in early childhood is closely associated with language development and the ability to express oneself. This helps provide an environment that nurtures brain development in the critical stages. Self-regulation not only supports better learning outcomes, it is also closely associated with better social, health and economic outcomes across the life course.

Social-emotional skills: These skills enable children and young people to engage in positive and constructive relationships. They help them to take charge of their own wellbeing, feel empathy and concern for the wellbeing of others and to think creatively about how to overcome challenges.

Youth participation in employment, education and training: Young people who leave education and do not transition into meaningful work or further education or training are at greater risk of: poor mental and physical health; being socially isolated; and experiencing unemployment and low income over their lifetime. They are also more likely to engage in criminal behaviours. Young people told us that they want to be adequately prepared for their future.

Key actions and progress

This section summarises progress in the year ending June 2020 on key actions under the Strategy for the outcome 'Children and young people are learning and developing', grouped by that outcome's descriptors. More details are found at childyouthwellbeing.govt.nz/measuring-success/reporting

They are positively engaged with, and progressing and achieving in, education

Statement of National Education and Learning Priorities and Tertiary Education Strategy

The statement of National Education Learning Priorities will set out the education and learning priorities for all early learning settings, schools and kura. The Tertiary Education Strategy will set out the priorities for tertiary providers. Further action from July 2020: The documents were released in November 2020.

Reform of vocational education

The Government is creating one system for all vocational education to increase clarity and consistency. Legislation came into effect in April 2020. Next steps: Final governance arrangements established in 2021, and a unified funding system in place from 2023.

NCEA change package

Government announced a package of changes to strengthen NCEA, including making it more accessible and providing equal status for mātauranga Māori. Implementation is under way and will continue through 2020 and 2021.

Equity Index

Work is under way to provide more equitable resourcing to schools and kura. This includes replacing the current decile funding system with the Equity Index. Further action from July 2020: A second round of engagement with the wider public in late 2020.

They develop the social, emotional and communication skills they need as they progress through life

Early Learning Action Plan

The plan, He Taonga te Tamaiti – Every Child a Taonga: Early Learning Action Plan 2019-29, published in December 2019, sets out five objectives and 25 actions to raise quality, improve equity and enable choice in early learning. Next steps: Implementation will take a stepped approach over the next 10 years.

Learning Support Action Plan

Key actions to strengthen learning support included introducing Learning Support Coordinators (LSC) in schools and kura, and improving the use of flexible funding, early intervention, and wraparound services. By June 2020, 534 of the 623 LSC roles (86%) had commenced employment. Next steps: Continued implementation of actions and development of resources.

They have the knowledge, skills and encouragement to achieve their potential and enable choices around further education, volunteering, employment and entrepreneurship

Programmes for young people not in education, employment or training

Budgets 2019 and 2020 provided funding to expand programmes that enhance education and employment outcomes for young people, including: Mana in Mahi, Tupu Aotearoa and He Poutama Rangatahi.

Youth Employment Action Plan

The first action plan under the Employment Strategy, it sets out a programme of actions for government agencies to improve education, training and employment outcomes for young people. Next steps: Ongoing monitoring and reporting following full implementation.

They can successfully navigate life's transitions

New service to support transition out of care or youth justice custody

A new transition support service to provide a more gradual and supported transition, up to age 25. Oranga Tamariki has partnered with 49 community and iwi/Māori partners. 78 transition workers are working with 604 young people. Next steps: Ongoing support from Oranga Tamariki through its partners.

What the indicators are telling us

Participation in early learning

As at June 2020, 74% of all three year olds attended early childhood education for 10 or more hours a week on average.[142]

The proportions of Māori and Pacific children attending early childhood education for an average of 10 or more hours a week at age three were 62% and 67%, respectively.

The proportion increases at age four for all groups. At this age, 84% of children attended early childhood education for an average of 10 or more hours a week, for Māori and Pacific children these proportions were 68% and 74%, respectively.

Figures for June 2019 were similar, with 75% of all three-year-olds attending early childhood education for 10 or more hours a week on average (62% and 67% for Māori and Pacific children respectively). For four-year-olds attending early childhood education for an average of 10 or more hours a week, the figures for all children, Māori and Pacific children were 84%, 71% and 75% respectively.[143]

Regular school attendance

In Term 2 2020, 64.7% of students (aged 6-16 years) regularly attended school.[144]

Regular attendance means attending school 90% of the time. Regular school attendance was lower for Māori and Pacific children: 47.7% and 51.3%, respectively.[145]

For Term 2 2019, regular attendance rates for all children, Māori and Pacific children (aged 6-16 years) were 57.7%, 43.8% and 44.7% respectively.[146]

Literacy, numeracy, and science skills

In 2018, 82% of students (aged 15-16 years) met the PISA level 2 benchmark in science.[147]

In reading, 81% of students met the level 2 benchmark in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). In maths, it was 78%.[148]

2015 PISA data ratings for science, reading and maths were 83%, 83% and 78% respectively.[149]

Social-emotional skills

Not yet available*

Based on aggregated survey data that measures compassion, respectfulness and trust.

Self-management skills

Not yet available*

Based on aggregated survey data that measures organisation, productiveness and responsibility.

Youth participation in employment, education and training

In 2019/20, 12.4% of children and young people (aged 15-24 years) were not in employment, education or training (NEET).[150]

The NEET proportions for Māori and Pacific children and young people were 19% and 17%, respectively. Overall, 81,100 children and young people were NEET, of whom 27,700 were Māori and 12,900 Pacific.[151]

In 2018/19, 12.1% of children and young people (aged 15-24 years) were NEET. Overall, 78,900 children and young people were NEET, of whom 27,100 were Māori and 11,600 Pacific.[152]

(*) Data not yet available – will be drawn from the 2021 Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey – WhatAboutMe?  

 

 

 

 

What else do we know?

Given the limited baseline data available for this outcome, we have included data from some supplementary sources to provide a snapshot of how children and young people are doing in certain areas.

Participation in early learning

Participation of children in ECE before starting school has steadily increased in the last ten years. The amount of time children participate in ECE each week has also increased in the last three years.

Participation intensity refers to the percentage of children aged 3 and 4 attending ECE for 10 or more hours per week on average. This has steadily increased in the last three years – participation of children aged 3 was 69% in 2017 and 75% in 2019 (a 5 percentage point increase); while participation of children aged 4 increased from 79% to 84% (a 5 percentage point increase) over the same period.

Prior participation is the percentage of children who regularly attended ECE services in the six months prior to starting school. This percentage is high and has gradually increased from 95% in 2011 to 97% in 2020.[153]

Regular school attendance

Regular attendance is associated with school decile, with lower regular attendance in lower decile schools. The change in attendance from 2019 to 2020 also differs across deciles. Attendance has improved in the top five deciles, but attendance has dropped from typical levels in deciles 1 and 2, increasing the gap between those at the bottom and those at the top.[154]

Literacy, numeracy, and science skills

New Zealand's reading, mathematical and science literacy scores were all above the OECD average –out of 36 OECD countries participating, New Zealand ranked eighth for reading, seventh for science, and 22nd for maths. The long-term trend shows a decline in scores for reading, maths and science.[155]

Since 2003, there has been a greater decline in reading scores for socio-economically advantaged students than for disadvantaged students, but the gap in average scores between these groups continues to be large.[156]

Social-emotional skills

A related measure of social-emotional skills is growth mindset.[157] In 2018, PISA asked students how much they agree that "your intelligence is something about you that you can't change very much".

Two in three (67%) students in New Zealand have a growth mindset. This proportion is relatively high internationally: the OECD average is 62%.

However, there are notable differences between ethnic groupings in growth mindset. Pākehā students are more likely to express a belief that intelligence can change (70% disagree that intelligence can't change much). The proportions of Māori and Pacific students who held this mindset were 59% and 53%, respectively.

On average, students with a growth mindset have higher persistence, higher resilience, lower fear of failure, are improvement and goal focussed and perceive a higher value in schooling. However, these are associations only and are unlikely to be direct causal relationships.[158]

Self-management skills

A related measure of self-management skills is self-efficacy. In 2018, PISA asked students about their self-efficacy more generally, particularly in how they cope with adversity.[159]

Most students report high self-efficacy but also a relatively high fear of failure. Over 90% of students feel they can manage one way or another and are proud that they have accomplished things. This proportion was similar across both boys and girls. 67% of students agreed that they felt like they could handle many things at once, and only 66% of students agreed that their belief in themselves gets them through hard times. On all of these, New Zealand students are far more likely to fear failure than the OECD average. There are three questions in PISA about fear of failure. 65% of students agreed that "When I am failing, I worry about what others think of me.", 63% agreed that "When I am failing, I am afraid that I might not have enough talent." and 68% agreed that "When I am failing, it makes me doubt my plans for the future." Students with a higher fear of failure are more likely to have a lower sense of belonging at school.[160]

Girls report a higher fear of failing than boys. Disadvantaged students feel lower self-efficacy but also lower fear of failure. Pacific students feel higher self-efficacy. Pākehā report a lower sense of general self-efficacy compared to non-Pākehā, especially as fewer Pākehā students agree that they can handle many things at a time (66%) or that their belief in themselves gets them through hard times (62%).[161]

Pacific students show a particularly large difference in self-efficacy compared to non-Pacific, and this difference is driven by their sense that their belief in themselves gets them through hard times (80%) and feeling that they can handle many things at a time (73%). Pākehā are particularly more likely than non-Pākehā to worry about what others will think if they fail (67%). Pacific students feel a lower fear of failure overall, compared to non-Pacific, driven by lower worries about talent and what others think. Māori students feel a lower fear of failure overall, and across all three statements, compared to non-Māori.[162]

Youth participation in employment, education and training

New Zealand was slightly above the 2019 OECD average on the percentage of children and young people (aged 15-19 years) not in education, employment or training (NEET); 6.9% compared to 6.6%. However, the 20-24-year-old group had lower levels of NEET population than the OECD average (13.9% compared to 14.9%).[163]

Te Kupenga 2018 data shows that 55.8% of tamariki and rangatahi Māori (aged 15-24 years) had a paid job.[164]

Next steps

Government will continue its substantial changes to the education system to ensure all children and young people are positively engaged with education and are developing the skills they need for life.

This includes implementing major action plans for early learning and learning support, with a strong focus on improving access and equity in education to ensure no-one misses out. The ongoing reform of vocational education is supported by the Youth Employment Action Plan and expanded programmes for young people not in education, employment or training. We will also continue to roll out our programme to provide free period products in schools.

Children and young people are accepted, respected and connected

What this means

This outcome means that children and young people:

  • feel manaakitanga: kindness, respect and care for others
  • feel accepted, respected and valued at home, school, in the community and online
  • live free from racism and discrimination
  • live free from bullying
  • have stable and healthy relationships
  • are connected to their culture, beliefs and identity, including whakapapa and tūrangawaewae
  • are connected to their language.

Why this is important

Children and young people in New Zealand want to live in a country where culture and diversity is not just accepted but embraced and celebrated in all environments.

They need safe spaces and time to explore and establish their identities. It's important that they're accepted for who they are without having to fit into narrow and limiting norms. A strong and positive sense of identity builds higher self-esteem and resilience – knowing your heritage helps you understand your identity, connections to others and sense of place, land and time.

The focus in this outcome is to build cultural competency into the design and delivery of services and to promote a society where all children and young people feel accepted and included.

How it will be measured

We have selected seven indicators to measure progress in this outcome. Several of these are subjective wellbeing indicators, and draw on children and young people's experiences:

Ability to be themselves: An inclusive society is especially important for children and young people's development as they try to establish their 'place' and personal identity. Many children told us they wanted to be able to 'be themselves' – accepted and valued for who they are, supported in their identity, respected, listened to and believed in. Those in the rainbow community, with disabilities, Māori, Pacific and other racial minorities, migrant and refugee children faced particular challenges due to discrimination and bias.

Sense of belonging: Children learn and develop best when their culture, their language, their knowledge and community are affirmed by others in their everyday lives. Developing a sense of belonging is important for children and young people to develop self-confidence and a sense of identity and tūrangawaewae. Children and young people talked about wanting to feel welcomed and accepted in spaces within their community, and about needing safe spaces in their community to explore and establish their identities.

Experience of discrimination: Discrimination can cause children and young people to have negative perceptions of their ethnicity, race, culture, appearance, gender or sexual orientation. They are also more likely to experience higher levels of depression, anxiety and other negative health outcomes. Many children and young people felt people judged them as less capable than others and, as a result, they were not offered equal opportunities. They also talked about how racism is common in their everyday life, and gave examples of experiencing racism at school, in jobs and in their community.

Experience of bullying: Being bullied can impact on children and young people's physical and emotional wellbeing, as well as on their relationships. Persistent bullying can also impact on their ability to achieve at school. Children and young people said bullying gets in the way of a good life. Bullying at school and online were the most common examples, but some children also spoke about bullying within their family or their homes.

Social support: This is about knowing you have one or more trusted friends, family or whānau to turn to when times are difficult. Strong social support is important to maintain a sense of safety, as well as to build and maintain resilience. Having external support in times of crisis reduces the likelihood of significant negative outcomes, such as spiralling debt, homelessness, and suicide. Children and young people spoke about having friends they could talk to and trust. They also talked about the trusted adults in their lives – their parents, caregivers, teachers, friends' parents, older siblings, cousins, youth workers and other professionals.

Support for cultural identity: This is an important aspect of children and young people's development, as cultural background influences how children think, learn and develop. Children and young people spoke about wanting opportunities specifically for people of their own culture. Some recognised their lack of knowledge about their culture; they wanted to be able to learn more and share that with others. Others said they feel stuck between two different cultures, and not accepted by either.

Languages: Language is an important aspect of cultural identity and connectedness for many children and young people. The ability to learn or retain the languages of their cultural group helps children and young people to develop an appreciation and understanding of their heritage.

Key actions and progress

This section summarises progress in the year ending June 2020 on key actions under the Strategy for the outcome 'Children and young people are accepted, respected and connected', grouped by that outcome's descriptors. More details are found at childyouthwellbeing.govt.nz/measuring-success/reporting

They feel accepted, respected and valued at home, school in the community and online / They feel manaakitanga: kindness, respect and care for others

Initiatives to prevent and respond to bullying in schools

A new Bullying Prevention and Response Work Programme for 2019-2022 is the main vehicle to progress work in these areas. Guidance on supporting social and emotional competencies in early learning has also been distributed, as has a revised online Behaviour and Learning guide. Next steps: Roll out of a range of Wellbeing at School products and resources for schools.

They live free from racism and discrimination

Restart Te Hurihanganui: supporting equitable outcomes for Māori learners

Te Hurihanganui supports communities to work together to address racism and inequity so that they can accelerate the achievement and wellbeing of ākonga Māori and their whānau. The programme has been launched in six communities, with the commitment to support those communities over three years.

They have stable and healthy relationships

Expand health relationship programmes in secondary schools (Mates & Dates)

The Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) expanded Mates & Dates, a programme that gives secondary school students the knowledge and skills to engage in safe, health and respectful relationships. More than 7,000 students completed Mates & Dates in 2020, and the programme was successfully redeployed to support young people in the recovery from COVID-19.

They are connected to their culture, language, beliefs and identity including whakapapa and tūrangawaewae

Implement Maihi Karauna – the Crown's Strategy for Māori Language Revitalisation

Maihi Karauna identifies all New Zealanders under 25 as a priority group and sets out what the Crown will do to support the Māori language in New Zealand. Implementation across government will be staged, from 2020-2023. All government agencies are required to develop a te reo Māori language plan by 30 June 2021. Next steps: Develop a work programme and engagement strategy for the Maihi Karauna priorities and initiate Cabinet review of Te Ture mō Te Reo Māori 2016.

Compulsory New Zealand history in schools

The government announced that New Zealand history will be taught more comprehensively and consistently in all schools and kura by 2022.

Te Ahu o Te Reo Māori

This programme works to ensure the education workforce can comfortably use some level of te reo Māori and increasingly incorporate it into teaching practices and programmes. It was tested and delivered in four regions from July 2019, with more than 1,000 people graduating from the programme. Next steps: Te Ahu o te Reo Māori will roll out nationwide in 2021.

Action Plan for Pacific Aotearoa Lalanga Fou

Government engaged with thousands of Pacific people to develop the Pacific Lalanga Fou report, which includes 'Confident, thriving and resilient Pacific young people' as one of its four goals. Delivery on the goals shifted focus to respond to COVID-19 priorities.

Implement section 7AA of the Oranga Tamariki Act 1989

Section 7AA has a range of requirements for Oranga Tamariki and its Chief Executive to reduce disparities for tamariki and rangatahi Māori and ensure that the familial structures of whānau, hapū and iwi are maintained and protected, including developing strategic partnerships with iwi and Māori organisations. Oranga Tamariki has signed partnerships with four iwi. Next steps: Sign strategic partnership agreements with four additional iwi; continue implementation, including developing measurable outcomes for tamariki Māori.

What the indicators are telling us

Ability to be themselves

Not yet available*

Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) who agree that is easy for them to express their identity.

Sense of belonging

Not yet available*

Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) who feel a sense of belonging to Aotearoa/New Zealand as a whole.

Experience of discrimination

Not yet available*

Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) who report experiencing discrimination in the last 12 months because of their ethnicity, gender or sexual identity or something else about them.

Experience of bullying

Not yet available*

Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) who report experiencing bullying in the last 12 months.

Social support

Not yet available*

Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) who say they have an adult they could turn to if they were going through a difficult time and needed help.

Support for cultural identity

Not yet available*

Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) who have someone they can ask about their culture, whakapapa or ethnic group.

Languages

Not yet available*

Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) who in everyday conversation speak a second and/or third language.

(*) Data not yet available – will be drawn from the 2021 Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey – WhatAboutMe?              

What else do we know?

Given the limited baseline data available for this outcome, we have included data from some supplementary sources to provide a snapshot of how children and young people are doing in certain areas.

Ability to be themselves

The Youth19 survey included a question about students being 'accepted for who they are' by family/whānau. We used this question as a proxy to the 'Ability to be themselves' measure. Most students reported their family/whānau accepted them for who they are (88.3%). There were no significant differences for Māori and Pacific students.[165]

Stats NZ General Social Survey 2018 data shows that 82.5% of children and young people (aged 15-24 years) found their ability to express their identity 'very easy' or 'easy'.[166]

Sense of belonging

The Youth19 survey asked students about their sense of belonging in New Zealand. Results shows that 63.4% of students felt like they belong in New Zealand. For Māori and Pacific students, this proportion was 77.1% and 66.9%, respectively.

Female students were less likely to feel they belong (61.9%), compared to male students (64.8%).[167]

Experience of discrimination

The COVID-19 supplement in the 2020/21 Household Labour Force Survey included a question on discrimination. It asked young people (aged 18-24) if they have experienced discrimination in the last 12 months. In the June 2020 quarter results, 20.2% of young people answered yes to this question. The proportion of Pacific young people who experienced discrimination in the last 12 months was slightly higher (23%), but much higher for Māori young people (28.6%).[168]

Te Kupenga 2018 data shows 33.3% of tamariki and rangatahi Māori (aged 15-24 years) had experienced discrimination in the last 12 months and 58.5% had experienced discrimination at any stage. The places where they were more likely to experience discrimination included school (42.8%) and on the street or in a public place (20.9%). The most common perceived reasons for discrimination were appearance (56.6%), race or ethnic group (49.2%) and skin colour (39.1%).[169]

Experience of bullying

The Youth19 survey showed that very regular bullying (weekly or more often in the past 12 months) was reported by 5.9% of students. 3.9% of males and 7.7% of females had not gone to school in the past month because they were afraid they might be hurt, teased or bullied. Bullying was most commonly based on body size or shape (25.3%). Other reported reasons for bullying related to ethnicity (11.5%) sexual orientation or being gender diverse (6.8%), religion (4.2%) because of a disability or health issue (6.1%). Small numbers of students (1.6%) reported bullying others weekly or more often in the past 12 months.

Overall, younger students were less likely to feel safe, more likely to report weekly or more frequent bullying, and more likely to miss school because they were afraid of being hurt, teased or bullied.

When looking at the bullying experience of Māori and Pacific students, 5.9% and 3.1% respectively, had been bullied weekly or more frequently in the previous 12 months and 6.6% and 4.5% respectively, had not gone to school in the past month because they were afraid of being bullied. The main reasons for being bullied was due to their body size or shape and ethnicity. On the other hand, 2.2% of Māori students and 2.1% of Pacific students said they had bullied others weekly or more often in the previous 12 months.[170]  

 

Social support

Data from the 2018 General Social Survey shows that 73.3% of children and young people (aged 15-24 years) would find it easy or very easy to ask someone they know if they urgently needed a place to stay. This was down from 77.6% in 2016 and 86.8% in 2014.[171]

Youth19 survey data showed that 76.1% of students agreed and strongly agreed that there was someone in their family/whānau who they can talk with about things that are worrying them. There were no significant differences amongst students from different ethnic groups.[172]

Data from Te Kupenga 2018 shows that, amongst tamariki and rangatahi Māori (aged 15-24 years), 78.6% find it easy or very easy to get support in times of need.[173]

Support for cultural identity

Te Kupenga 2018 data shows that, of tamariki and rangatahi Māori (aged 15-24 years), 54.4% find it easy or very easy to get help with Māori cultural practices.[174] 50.1% have been in a marae in the previous 12 months, and 68% would like to have been to their marae tipuna (if known) more often in the same period.[175]

Languages

Data from the 2018 Census shows that 15.7% of children (aged 0-14 years) speak two languages or more. However, there are significant variations when looking at children from different ethnic groups. Of Māori children, 16.4% speak two or more languages, slightly above the rate for overall children. Pacific, Asian and MELAA children speak two or more languages in much higher proportions compared to the general population of children, at 26.1%, 38.3% and 34.3%, respectively. European children are the least likely to speak two languages (6.7%).[176]

The proportion of rangatahi Māori (15-24) who speak, understand, read and write very well/well te reo Māori was 8.1%, 12.8%, 12.8% and 10.8%, respectively. 17.4% learned te reo Māori as a first language and still understand it.[177]

Data from the 2018 Census shows that, of the overall child population (aged 0-14 years), 4.8% speak te reo Māori.[178]

Next steps

To help children and young people understand their identity, connections to others and sense of place, land and time, we will introduce consistent and comprehensive teaching of New Zealand history in all schools and kura by 2022. To make the curriculum changes, we will call on historical and curriculum experts, iwi and mana whenua, Pacific communities, students and ākonga, and parents and whānau.

We are also rolling out Te Ahu o Te Reo Māori nationwide to ensure the education workforce is comfortable with increasingly incorporating te reo Māori in their work.

To promote a society where all children and young people feel accepted and included, we are developing a National Action Plan Against Racism. This will involve targeted engagement with communities and civil society groups.

Children and young people are involved and empowered

This means:

This outcome means that children and young people:

  • contribute positively at home, at school and in their communities
  • exercise kaitiakitanga: care of the land and connection to nature
  • have their voices, perspectives, and opinions listened to and taken into account
  • are supported to exercise increasing autonomy as they age, and to be responsible citizens
  • they, and their families, are supported to make healthy choices around relationships, sexual health, alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs.

Why this is important

Children and young people are experts in their own lives and need to be heard on matters that affect them; they deserve good, accessible information to help them make informed choices about their lives.

Youth driven enterprises, initiatives and campaigns are common and show young people's motivation and ability to galvanise their peers and influence change. Young people need opportunities and information to exercise kaitiakitanga now and for the future.

The focus in this outcome is to ensure children and young people are listened to and taken seriously when decisions are made that affect them, including at school, in State care, and in decision-making more broadly.

How it will be measured

We have selected four indicators to measure progress in this outcome:

Involvement in community: This includes children and young people participating in community life – things like helping out at the marae or church, volunteering, collecting for charity, and participating in community groups. Involvement in the community can help them connect with those around them and begin to develop a sense of contribution and responsibility for their physical and social environments.

Representation of young people's voices: Ensuring young people feel empowered to express their views and believe that their voice matters is crucial to their involvement in civic life. Children and young people told us they want to be supported to provide their insight and perspectives on what matters to them. They also want their voice heard and taken seriously.

Making positive choices: Taking some risks is a normal part of development. Risk taking in lower-risk situations helps young people to develop independence, self-control and good judgement. However, some risk-taking behaviours are potentially harmful to individuals' wellbeing, are illegal or socially unacceptable, or may have serious repercussions.

Criminal offending: Most children and young people who offend are also experiencing poor wellbeing in other areas of their life. The majority of those who offend, particularly those committing more serious offences, are not attending or not achieving at school, have learning difficulties or mental health issues, come from homes experiencing poverty or material hardship, and/or have been exposed to family violence.

Key actions and progress

This section summarises progress in the year ending June 2020 on key actions under the Strategy for the outcome 'Children and young people are involved and empowered', grouped by that outcome's descriptors. More details are found at childyouthwellbeing.govt.nz/measuring-success/reporting

They contribute positively at home, at school and in their communities / They exercise kaitiakitanga: care of the land and connection to nature

Youth Plan

The Youth Plan sets out actions government will take, in partnership with others, to mitigate the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic for rangatahi. It aims to ensure rangatahi have a say in decisions about recovery, with actions organised into four focus areas: voice, wellbeing, leadership and transformative change. In response to COVID-19, agencies used pulse surveys and focus groups to determine how young people were coping and what they needed. Youth-led recovery efforts were also showcased. Next steps: Design and/or implementation of the 16 actions.

They have their voices, perspectives and opinions listened to and taken into account

Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey – WhatAboutMe?

WhatAboutMe? has been developed to collect health and wellbeing data of up to 14,000 young people to inform policies and services. It will be conducted every three years, and data collected will be used to measure progress on 15 indicators under the Strategy. Data collection for the survey, due to start in May 2020, was paused due to COVID-19. Next steps: Data collection from early 2021.

Kau Tulī Innovators of Influence

The Ministry for Pacific Peoples (MPP) established a pilot youth advisory group, Kau Tulī Innovators of Influence, made up of Pacific young people from across New Zealand to support and advise MPP and engage with young people. Next steps: Kau Tulī members will lead and deliver engagement initiatives in 2021.

They are supported to exercise increasing autonomy as they age, and to be responsible citizens

Strengthen independent oversight of Oranga Tamariki system and children's issues

Following a review of independent oversight arrangements for the Oranga Tamariki (OT) system and children's issues (the Beattie Review), Government is working to strengthen the system of independent oversight of the OT system and children's issues. Next steps: A Bill will be introduced to achieve the necessary changes.

Build public service capability in children's rights

As part of its work programme to implement the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Government has committed to develop training for public servants on children's rights and the Convention. Agencies have reviewed e-learning modules and surveyed public servants. Next steps: An online training tool.

They and their families are supported to make healthy choices around relationships, sexual health, alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs

Investment in community-based youth justice facilities

Oranga Tamariki is developing innovative, new community-based youth justice homes in partnership with mana whenua, iwi, and Māori organisations, which provide a home-like environment to support rehabilitation. Next steps: Development of 16 five-bed homes across the country.

Paiheretia te Muka Tangata

This kaupapa draws on the strengths of the whānau ora approach and focuses on supporting young Māori (under 30 years old) and their whānau who are engaged in the Corrections system. It aims to support them to develop their own pathways to achieve their aspirations, thereby improving whānau wellbeing and reducing re-offending. Next steps: Pilot in Hawke's Bay from April 2021, and Northland from mid-2021.

What the indicators are telling us

Involvement in community

Not yet available*

Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) who report helping others in the neighbourhood or community.

Representation of young people's voices

78.02% of young people (aged 18-24 years) enrolled and voted in the 2020 New Zealand General Election.[179]

The proportion of young people of Māori descent and non-Māori descent[180] who enrolled and voted in the 2020 New Zealand General Election was 69.74% and 80.51%, respectively.[181]

65.6% of young people (aged 18-24 years) rated their trust in Parliament as high or very high (7-10 on a scale of 0-10) in the June quarter of 2020.[182]

Trust in Parliament was lower among Māori and Pacific young people. A little over half of Māori young people rated their trust in Parliament as high or very high (53.2%). The proportion was 59.5% for Pacific young people.[183]

Making positive choices

In the 2019/20 year, 26.7% of children and young people (aged 15-24 years) were hazardous drinkers[184], 12.4% were current smokers[185] and 1.4% were amphetamine users.[186]

36.2% of Māori children and young people were hazardous drinkers, 26.4% were current smokers. For Pacific children and young people, the proportions were 35.5% and 18.8% respectively.[187]

Criminal offending

In 2019/20, 174.5 children (aged 10-17 years) per 10,000 committed criminal offences.[188]

For Māori and Pacific children, the criminal offending rates were 309.1 and 97.9 per 100,000, respectively.

The criminal offending rate for children aged 10-13 years was 78.9 per 100,000 and for children aged 14-17 years it was 276.3 per 100,000. For Māori children these rates were 159.5 and 478.8 per 100,000 respectively; and for Pacific children they were 32.6 and 169.2 per 100,000, respectively.

The 2018/19 criminal offending rates were 83.2 per 100,000 children aged 10-13 years and 286.2 per 100,000 children aged 14-16 years.[189] For Māori children, the rates were 188.8 and 550 per 100,000 respectively; and for Pacific children, the rates were 32.6 and 194.5 per 100,000, respectively.[190] 

(*) Data not yet available – will be drawn from the 2021 Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey – WhatAboutMe? 

What else do we know?

To complement the available data for this outcome, we have included supplementary data to provide a snapshot of how children and young people are doing in certain areas.

Involvement in community

The Youth19 survey asked students about their experiences helping others. Nearly half of students reported giving time to help others in their school or community in the past 12 months (47.1%). For Māori and Pacific students, this percentage was 46.9% and 52.7%, respectively.[191]

Female students were more likely to help others in school or the community in the past 12 months (54%), compared to male students (39.7%).

Te Kupenga 2018 data shows that 10.7% of tamariki and rangatahi Māori (aged 15-24 years) provided help for, or through, a marae, hapū or iwi and 33.4% provided help for, or through, a school, church, sports club or other group or organisation.[192]

Representation of young people's voices

The Youth19 survey reports that 30.8% of secondary school students aged 17+ were enrolled to vote in New Zealand elections (the survey was delivered in terms 2 and 3 of 2019). In total, 74% of all students who were not already enrolled reported that they planned to enrol to vote.

Rates for rangatahi Māori in this group who were enrolled to vote were higher, at 33.5%, while 65.2% planned to enrol to vote.[193]

Rates for Pacific students enrolled to vote were lower, at 25.9%, with 65.8% who planned to enrol to vote.

The 2018 General Social Survey asked people about their trust in Parliament. 47.7% of young people (aged 18-24 years) rated their trust in Parliament as high or very high (7 or higher on a scale on a scale where 0 is not trusted at all and 10 is trusted completely). Trust in Parliament was lower among Māori and Pacific young people. Less than a third of Māori young people rated their trust in Parliament as high or very high (29.5%). This percentage was 43.8 for Pacific young people.[194]

Te Kupenga 2018 data shows that 74.5% of tamariki and rangatahi Māori (aged 15-24 years) voted in the last General Election (data only related to those old enough to vote in the 2017 General Election).[195]

Making positive choices

Youth19 survey provides relevant data for this indicator as it measured cigarette smoking, binge drinking and marijuana use. The proportion of children and young people (aged 13-18 years) who smoke weekly or more often was 2.6%; this proportion was higher for Māori and Pacific children and young people at 4.7% and 4.3%, respectively.

Regarding drinking habits, 21.8% of children and young people reported binge drinking at least once in the past 4 weeks. The proportion of Māori children and young people reporting this behaviour was higher (28.6%) and it was lower for Pacific children and young people (12.8%).

The proportion of children and young people reporting using marijuana weekly or more often was 4.1%. For Māori children and young people, it was 8.5% and for Pacific children and young people it was 3.6%.[196]

Criminal offending

Administrative data from the Ministry of Justice shows that 8.1% of child offenders (aged 10-13) committed offences serious enough to lead to a Family Group Conference (FGC) or court action. Māori children were more highly represented in this group (12.2%), while Pacific children were lower (3.3%).

Serious offences by children (aged 14-17) that lead to an FGC or court action were much higher (28.3%). In this age group, the proportions of Māori and Pacific child offenders were much higher, at 41.7% and 33.2% respectively.[197]

Next steps

We are implementing the actions of the Youth Plan to ensure young people have a say in decisions about them, their wellbeing and that of their family and whānau is supported, and to enable youth leadership, and to drive transformative change to how government works with young people.

A key action for supporting young people to have their voices, perspectives, and opinions listened to and taken into account is the WhatAboutMe? survey. This new national survey has been developed to ask young people in secondary schools, alternative education units, kura kaupapa, and Youth One Stop Shops what it is like to be a young person in New Zealand. The survey was delayed because of COVID-19 and will now be undertaken in Terms 2 and 3 2021.

Appendix one: Development of the indicators

The Child and Youth Wellbeing Indicators (the Indicators) set out by the Strategy framework are intended to provide a high-level overview of whether wellbeing is improving for children and young people in New Zealand. They are not intended to replace or supersede other rich sources of information about child and youth wellbeing. Government agencies, local government, researchers and non-government organisations can use the Indicators to supplement the data and information they already collect.

To determine the best way to measure the outcomes, officials reviewed local and international research on measuring wellbeing, talked to a range of experts in child and youth wellbeing and in data and measurement, considered the nine guiding principles of the Strategy and the feedback received from the public consultation.

Research shows that people's impressions of their circumstances are usually most predictive of their future wellbeing, indicating: –

  • children and young people are often the best experts about their own wellbeing
  • what is measured needs to reflect children and young people's experience of the things they said were important to their wellbeing (i.e. asking them directly about things like feeling safe and the wellbeing of their family and whānau)

From this, officials identified a set of broad criteria to help narrow down the many existing measures of wellbeing to a set of 36 indicators. The criteria included a preference for indicators that are strengths-based[198], relevant and easily understood, applicable to all children and young people, and aligned with the other government indicators and measurement frameworks to enable consistency and coherency across Government.

The set of Indicators will collectively measure the outcomes in the most direct and simplest way possible. A detailed description of the Indicators and measures and sources can be found here: https://childyouthwellbeing.govt.nz/measuring-success/indicators.

The indicators and measures

The Child and Youth Wellbeing indicators were developed as quantitative metrics that provide information to monitor performance, measure achievement and determine accountability for each of the Strategy outcomes. To develop the indicators for each outcome, officials considered the following criteria:

  • Validity: the indicator accurately measures at least one of the dimensions of the outcome
  • Reliability: the indicator can be consistently measured over time
  • Precision: the indicator can be described/explained in a specific way
  • Measurable: the indicator can be measured with existing or newly created data
  • Timely: the indicator provides a measurement during a period and at a frequency that is relevant to the legislation and objectives of the Strategy
  • Programmatically important: the indictor is linked to the policy priorities as defined by the legislation and the Strategy.

Recognising that children and young people are the experts in their own wellbeing, we wanted to ensure that what they say is reflected in the indicators. This means what we measure also reflects the things children and young people told us were important to their wellbeing.

Each of the indicators has been operationally defined to provide a description by which they can be accurately measured. Most of them have only one measure. However, some indicators have several measures associated with them.

We have also included supplementary measures and information to complement and provide additional context to some indicators.

Measures and data sources

A number of government agencies have worked with the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet to provide the data needed to measure progress across the six wellbeing outcomes. The data sources are diverse and robust; they comprise long term and newly established surveys as well as government databases. The following table provides more detail.

Agency Data source
Ministry of Social Development (MSD) The Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey – WhatAboutMe?
Stats NZ Administrative Data
Household Labour Force Survey
General Social Survey
Household Economic Survey
Material Wellbeing Index
Official Child Poverty Measure
Oranga Tamariki–Ministry for Children Administrative Data
Ministry of Health New Zealand Health Survey
National Maternity Collection
Administrative Data
Health Quality and Safety Commission New Zealand Child and Youth Mortality Review Committee data report
Ministry of Education Administrative Data
School Attendance Collection
Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)
Ministry of Justice Administrative Data
Electoral Commission Administrative Data

Impact of COVID-19 on data collection and reporting

In addition to the unfolding impacts of the pandemic on child and youth wellbeing, the COVID-19 crisis has also delayed the collection of a significant amount of baseline data:

  • On 20 March 2020, Government halted all face-to-face data collection until further notice as part of the response to the outbreak of COVID-19 in New Zealand.
  • Many surveys, including the NZ Health Survey, were suspended for several months, including the critical time during COVID-19 Alert Levels 3 and 4, which means our understanding of wellbeing for this period will also be limited.
  • The WhatAboutMe? survey was delayed until 2021. Data from this survey will be available later in 2021 and reported in subsequent annual reports.

These delays impact several data sources for the Strategy's indicators, and baselines can only be taken for the indicators where there is data available. In particular, the outcome 'Children and Young People are accepted, respected and connected' has no baseline data available.

Supplementary data

Given the limited baseline data available for the first report, we have included supplementary data to provide a snapshot of how children and young people are doing in certain areas. The supplementary data sources:

  • provide alternative data where primary data is not yet available; or
  • expand on disaggregated data from the primary data source, where available, to provide a richer level of information, or
  • provide information about different age ranges or demographics; or
  • provide information relevant to the indicator that is not captured in the specific measure.

The supplementary data sources we have drawn from include data from the Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey (Youth19)[199] and longitudinal study Growing up in New Zealand (GUINZ)[200].

How we are improving the gaps in data to measure children and young people's wellbeing

To better understand the wellbeing of young people in New Zealand, the Government has provided funding for a nationwide Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey, WhatAboutMe? This is expected to be the largest survey of young people in a generation and will ask around 14,000 young people about their experience, health and wellbeing. The WhatAboutMe? survey is intended to be the main data source for approximately half of the Strategy's indicators, including most of the subjective wellbeing measures. However, because of COVID-19, data collection has been delayed until 2021. Data from this survey will be included in subsequent annual reports.

Work to develop the Strategy outcome indicators shows that whilst there is relevant data on some aspects of child wellbeing, we lack timely and relevant information in some crucial areas. These areas include:

  • data on children's development in the early years
  • data grounded in a Te Ao Māori view
  • data on the daily lives and subjective wellbeing of younger children
  • data that enables NZ to be included in international comparisons

Over time, officials will work to address these gaps and improve the data collection on children and young people and reflect this in the indicators and measures. Options to address data gaps and quality issues could include extending and enhancing existing local surveys, adapting international surveys and/or developing a bespoke new study on child wellbeing in Aotearoa.

Appendix two: Indicator, measure and source tables

The 'loved, safe and nurtured' indicators

Indicator Measure Source
Feeling loved
Children and young people feel loved and supported.
Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) who feel they are loved by the people who look after or care for them. The Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey WhatAboutMe?[201]* – Ministry of Social Development (MSD)
Family and whānau wellbeing
Children and young people have family, whānau and homes that are loving, safe and nurturing.
Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) rating their families as doing well. The Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey WhatAboutMe?* – MSD
Percentage of young people (aged 18-24 years) who rate their family as doing well (7-10 in a scale of 0-10). Household Labour Force Survey (COVID-19 supplement) – Stats NZ
Quality time with parents
Children and young people can spend quality time with their parents, family and whānau.
Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) who feel they get to spend enough time with the people who look after or care for them. The Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey WhatAboutMe?* – MSD
Harm against children
Children and young people are safe from intentional harm (including neglect, and emotional, physical and sexual abuse).
Percentage of reports of concern to Oranga Tamariki requiring further action (aged 0-17 years). Oranga Tamariki – Ministry for Children administrative data
Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) that in the last 12 months have been hit or physically hurt, or they have seen others in the home being hit or physically hurt by adults in the places where they usually live. The Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey WhatAboutMe?* – MSD
Feeling safe
Children and young people feel safe and secure.
Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) who feel safe (at school, at home, at work, online, in the community, where they live). The Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey WhatAboutMe?* – MSD
Serious injuries
Children and young people are safe from unintentional harm.
Number of 'serious non-fatal' injuries per 100,000 children and young people aged 0-24 years. Administrative Data – Stats NZ
Child mortality rates by cause. Child and Youth Mortality Review Committee reports

(*) Data not yet available – will be drawn from the 2021 Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey – WhatAboutMe?          

The 'have what you need' indicators

Indicator Measure Source
Material wellbeing
Children and their parents/caregivers have a good standard of material wellbeing.
Percentage of children (aged 0-15 years) living in households experiencing good material wellbeing. Household Economic Survey – Stats NZ
Child poverty
Children live in households with adequate income and are free from material hardship.
Percentage of children (aged 0-17 years) living in households with less than 50 percent median equivalised disposable household income before housing costs (BHC). Official Child Poverty Measure – Stats NZ
Percentage of children (aged 0-17 years) living in households with less than 50 percent median equivalised disposable household income after housing costs (AHC).
Percentage of children (aged 0-17 years) living in households experiencing material hardship.
Food insecurity
Children have regular access to nutritious food.
Percentage of children (aged 0-14 years) living in households where food runs out sometimes or often. New Zealand Health Survey – Ministry of Health
Housing quality
Children live in warm and dry housing.
Percentage of children (aged 0-17 years) living in households with a major problem with dampness or mould. Household Economic Survey – Stats NZ
Housing affordability
Children live in stable housing that is affordable.
Percentage of households with children and young people living in (aged 0-17 years) spending more than 30 percent of their disposable income on housing

The 'happy and healthy' indicators

Indicator Measure Source
Prenatal wellbeing
Children and young people have the best possible health, starting before birth.
Number of pregnant people registering with Lead Maternity Carers (LMCs) over the course of the pregnancy. National Maternity Collection – Ministry of Health
Percentage of pregnant people registering with LMCs or accessing Primary Maternity Services in the first trimester.
Percentage of people giving birth who were smoking two weeks after the birth of their child.
Subjective health status
Children and young people feel they have good health.
Percentage of young people (aged 12-18 years) reporting their health as good, very good, or excellent. The Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey WhatAboutMe?* – MSD
Percentage of children and young people (aged 15-24 years) reporting their health as good, very good, or excellent. New Zealand Health Survey – Ministry of Health
Potentially avoidable hospitalisations
Children live in healthy and sustainable environments.
Rate of potentially avoidable hospitalisations for children (aged 0-14 years). Administrative data – Ministry of Health
Mental wellbeing
Children and young people have spaces and opportunities to play and express themselves creatively.
Children and young people build self-esteem and resilience.
Percentage of children and young people (aged 15-24 years) who experienced high or very high levels of psychological distress at some stage over a four-week period. New Zealand Health Survey – Ministry of Health
Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) that in the last 30 days felt nervous, hopeless, restless or fidgety and or so depressed that nothing could cheer you up. The Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey WhatAboutMe?* – MSD
Self-harm and suicide
Children and young people have good mental wellbeing and recover from trauma.
Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) that in the last 12 months: i) deliberately hurt themselves or did anything they knew might harm them, and ii) tried to kill themselves. The Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey WhatAboutMe?* – MSD
Number of suicides per 100,000 children and young people (aged 10-17 years). Administrative data – Ministry of Justice

(*) Data not yet available – will be drawn from the 2021 Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey – WhatAboutMe?      

The 'learning and developing' indicators

Indicator Measure Source
Participation in early learning
Children enjoy early learning opportunities.
Percentage of 3-year-old attending early childhood education for 10 or more hours a week on average.
Percentage of 4-year olds attending early childhood education for 10 or more hours a week on average.
Administrative data – Ministry of Education
Regular school attendance
Children and young people are positively engaged with, progressing and achieving in education.
Percentage of children and young people who are regularly attending school (aged 5-18 years). Attendance collection database – Ministry of Education
Literacy, numeracy, and science skills
Children have the knowledge, skills and encouragement to achieve their potential.
Percentage of children (aged15-16 years) meeting the Level 2 benchmark for reading, maths and science. Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) – Ministry of Education
Social-emotional skills
Children develop the social, emotional and communication skills they need as they progress through life.
Based on aggregated survey data that measures compassion, respectfulness and trust. The Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey WhatAboutMe?* – MSD
Self-management skills
Children can successfully navigate life's transitions.
Based on aggregated survey data that measures organisation, productiveness and responsibility.
Youth participation in employment, education and training
Children and young people have choices around further education, volunteering, employment and entrepreneurship.
Percentage of children and young people (aged 15-24 years) who are participating in education, training, or employment. Household Labour Force Survey – Stats NZ

(*) Data not yet available – will be drawn from the 2021 Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey – WhatAboutMe?  

The 'accepted, respected and connected' indicators

Indicator Measure Source
'Ability to be themselves'
Children and young people feel manaakitanga: kindness, respect and care for others.
Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) who agree that is easy for them to express their identity. The Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey WhatAboutMe?* – MSD
Sense of belonging
Children and young people feel accepted, respected and valued at home, school, in the community and online.
Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) who feel a sense of belonging to Aotearoa/New Zealand as a whole.
Experience of discrimination
Children and young people live free from racism and discrimination.
Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) who report experiencing discrimination in the last 12 months because of their ethnicity, gender or sexual identity or something else about them.
Experience of bullying
Children and young people live free from bullying.
Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) who experienced bullying in the last 12 months.
Social support
Children and young people have stable and healthy relationships.
Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) who say they have an adult they could turn to if they were going through a difficult time and needed help.
Support for cultural identity
Children and young people are connected to their culture, beliefs and identity including whakapapa and tūrangawaewae.
Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) who have someone they can ask about their culture, whakapapa or ethnic group.
Languages
Children and young people are connected to their language.
Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) who in everyday conversation speak a second and/or third language.

(*) Data not yet available – will be drawn from the 2021 Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey – WhatAboutMe?  

The 'involved and empowered' indicators

Indicator Measure Source
Involvement in community
Children and young people contribute positively at home, at school and in their communities
Children and young people exercise kaitiakitanga: care of the land and connection to nature
Percentage of children and young people (aged 12-18 years) who report helping others in the neighbourhood or community The Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey WhatAboutMe?* – MSD
Representation of young people's voices
Children and young people have their voices, perspectives, and opinions listened to and considered
Percentage of children and young people (aged 18-24 years) enrolled and voting in the New Zealand general election Administrative data – Electoral Commission
Average rating given for trust in parliament (aged 15-24 years) General Social Survey – Stats NZ
Making positive choices
Children, young people and their families, are supported to make healthy choices around relationships, sexual health, alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs
Percentage of children and young people (aged 15-24 years) who are hazardous drinkers, current smokers and amphetamine users New Zealand Health Survey – Ministry of Health
Criminal offending
Children and young people are supported to exercise increasing autonomy as they age, and to be responsible citizens
Offending rates per 10,000 children and young people (aged 10-17 years) Administrative data – Ministry of Justice

(*) Data not yet available – will be drawn from the 2021 Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey – WhatAboutMe?  

Appendix three: Endnotes

[1] Technical note: The Child and Youth Wellbeing Strategy is aimed at children and young people under 25 years old. There is not a single definition in age terms of what is a 'child' and 'young person'. Where possible, we have used the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCROC) definition of a child, stated in article 1: every human being below the age of eighteen years. We have referred to a young person as a person aged 18 to 24 years old. However, for statistical purposes, some data sources include different age ranges for these groups. Where we have quoted these sources, we have specified the age-range being referred to.
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[2] Technical note: In this report we have used a broad range of data sources with different degrees of sampling/margins of error. For this reason, we recommend taking comparisons with caution. In addition, we have provided a wide range of contextual data from government administrative data and surveys and university run surveys such as the Youth2000 series and Growing up in New Zealand.
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[3] Data source: Stats NZ. The COVID-19 supplement in the June 2020 quarter of the Household Labour Force Survey. Customised data request. For more information see: https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/wellbeing-statistics-june-2020-quarter. Technical note: Measure is the proportion of young people aged 18-24 who rated how well their family was doing as 7 or higher on a scale of 0 to 10, where 0 is extremely badly and 10 is extremely well.
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[4] Data source: Stats NZ. 2018 General Social Survey. Customised data request: wellbeing statistics for age 18-24 year olds. For more information: see https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/wellbeing-statistics-2018. Technical note: Dependent children refers to a child under age 18, that lives with them and is not employed fulltime.
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[5] Data source: Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey. Customised data request. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. Technical note: The Youth19 Survey is the latest in the Youth2000 series of health & wellbeing surveys. Youth19 was conducted in 2019 in the Auckland, Northland & Waikato regions. These three regions contain 47% of the total New Zealand youth population and are the most ethnically diverse areas of the country. Percentages have been adjusted to ensure estimates reflect the national student population. The survey comprised 285 questions across 11 key areas: ethnicity and culture; home life; identity; school; health; emotions; injury and violence; sport, work and online time; sex and sexuality; addictive behaviours; and neighbourhood and spirituality.
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[6] Data source: Oranga Tamariki-Ministry for Children: Administrative Data.
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[7] Data source: Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey. Customised data request. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
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[8] Data source: Stats NZ. (2021). Child poverty statistics: Year ended June 2020. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/child-poverty-statistics-year-ended-june-2020 Technical note: Range refers to estimated number of children in poverty based on three primary measures.
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[9] Data source: Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (DPMC). Child Poverty Related Indicators Report. 2021. Forthcoming.
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[10] Data source: Stats NZ. 2019/20 Household Economic Survey. Customised data request.
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[11] Data source: Ministry of Health (2020). 2019/20 New Zealand Health Survey. Customised data request.
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[12] Data source: Ministry of Health (2020). 2019/20 New Zealand Health Survey. Customised data request.
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[13] Data source: Ministry of Health (2020). New Zealand Health Survey. Retrieved from https://minhealthnz.shinyapps.io/nz-health-survey-2019-20-annual-data-explorer/_w_80e9671e/#!/explore-indicators Technical note: The NZHS became a continuous survey in 2011, enabling the publication of annual updates on the health and wellbeing of New Zealanders.
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[14] Data source: Ministry of Health (2020). 2019/20 New Zealand Health Survey. Retrieved from https://minhealthnz.shinyapps.io/nz-health-survey-2019-20-annual-data-explorer/_w_80e9671e/#!/explore-indicators
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[15] Data source: Ministry of Health (2020). 2019/20 New Zealand Health Survey. Retrieved from https://minhealthnz.shinyapps.io/nz-health-survey-2019-20-annual-data-explorer/_w_80e9671e/#!/explore-indicators
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[16] Data source: Stats NZ. 2018 New Zealand General Social Survey: Wellbeing statistics. Table 3: Selected wellbeing measures by age (10-year groupings). Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/wellbeing-statistics-2018
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[17] Data source: Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey. Customised data request. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
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[18] Data source: Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey. Customised data request. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
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[19] Data source: Ministry of Health (2020). New Zealand Health Survey. Retrieved from https://minhealthnz.shinyapps.io/nz-health-survey-2019-20-annual-data-explorer/_w_80e9671e/#!/explore-indicators
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[20] Data source: Stats NZ. The COVID-19 supplement in the June 2020 quarter of the Household Labour Force Survey. Customised data request. From more information see: https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/wellbeing-statistics-june-2020-quarter
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[21] Data source: Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey. Customised data request. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
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[22] Data source: Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey. Customised data request. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
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[23] Data source: Electoral Commission. Voter turnout statistics for the 2020 General Election. Retrieved from https://elections.nz/democracy-in-nz/historical-events/2020-general-election-and-referendums/voter-turnout-statistics-for-the-2020-general-election/
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[24] Data source: Stats NZ. (2021). 2018 Census ethnic group summaries. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/tools/2018-census-ethnic-group-summaries/m%C4%81ori
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[25] Data source: Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (DPMC). Child and Youth Wellbeing Strategy, August 2019, page 11. Retrieved from Child and Youth Wellbeing Strategy – 18 August 2019 (childyouthwellbeing.govt.nz)
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[26] For more information see: 'Loved, safe and nurtured: What the indicators are telling us'.
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[27] For more information see: 'Happy and healthy: What the indicators are telling us'.
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[28] For more information see: 'Have what you need: What the indicators are telling us'.
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[29] Technical note: Te Kōhanga Reo do not report attendance data using the Early Learning Information (ELI) system. Therefore, the participation rate for tamariki Māori is underestimated.
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[30] For more information see: 'Learning and developing: What the indicators are telling us'.
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[31] For more information see: 'Accepted, respected and connected: What else do we know?'.
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[32] Data source: Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey. Customised data request. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
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[33] Data source: Stats NZ. (2021). Child poverty statistics: Year ended June 2020. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/child-poverty-statistics-year-ended-june-2020
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[34] Data source: Stats NZ. (2021). 2018 Census ethnic group summaries: Pacific Peoples. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/tools/2018-census-ethnic-group-summaries/pacific-peoples
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[35] For more information see: 'Loved, safe and nurtured: What the indicators are telling us'.
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[36] For more information see: 'Have what you need: What the indicators are telling us'.
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[37] For more information see: 'Happy and healthy: What the indicators are telling us'.
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[38] For more information see: 'Accepted, respected and connected: What else do we know?'.
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[39] For more information see: 'Learning and developing: What the indicators are telling us'.
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[40] Data source: Stats NZ. 2018 Census ethnic group summaries: Ethnicity, culture and identity. Table 6. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/tools/2018-census-ethnic-group-summaries
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[41] For more information see: 'Involved and empowered: What the indicators are telling us'.
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[42] Data source: Stats NZ. (2021). 2018 Census ethnic group summaries. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/tools/2018-census-ethnic-group-summaries/m%C4%81ori
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[43] Data source: Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey. Customised data request. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
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[44] Data source: Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey. Customised data request. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
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[45] Data source: Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey. Customised data request. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
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[46] Technical note: Material wellbeing index score of 15 or more. Retrieved from https://statisticsnz.shinyapps.io/wellbeingindicators/_w_1be851f0/?page=indicators&class=Economic&type=Economic%20standard%20of%20living&indicator=Material%20wellbeing
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[47] Technical note: Material hardship is defined as having a DEP-17 score of six or more.
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[48] Data source: Ministry of Health, New Zealand Health Survey (NZHS). Customised data request: Food Insecurity 2019/20 financial year.
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[49] Data source: Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (DPMC). Child Poverty Related Indicators Report. 2021. Forthcoming.
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[50] Data source: Stats NZ. 2019/20 Household Economic Survey. Customised data request.
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[51] Data source: Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey. Customised data request. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
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[52] Data source: Fleming, T., Ball, J., Peiris-John, R., Crengle, S., Bavin, L., Tiatia-Seath, J., Archer, D., & Clark, T. (2020). Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey, Initial Findings: Substance Use. Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. Retrieved from https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5bdbb75ccef37259122e59aa/t/5f3396209830484e5a9b3a0d/1597216310364/Youth19+Substance+Use+Report.pdf
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[53] Data source: Stats NZ. 2018 Census ethnic group summaries: Ethnicity, culture and identity. Table 6. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/tools/2018-census-ethnic-group-summaries
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[54] Data source: Stats NZ. (2021). 2018 Census ethnic group summaries. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/tools/2018-census-ethnic-group-summaries/m%C4%81ori
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[55] Data source: Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (DPMC). Child Poverty Related Indicators Report. 2021. Forthcoming.
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[56] Data source: Stats NZ. 2018 Census ethnic group summaries: Ethnicity, culture and identity. Table 6. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/tools/2018-census-ethnic-group-summaries
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[57] Technical note: People aged 5 to 17 are assessed as disabled if they have serious difficulty with at least one of the following: seeing (even with glasses), hearing (even with hearing aids), walking, feeding or dressing themselves, communicating, learning, remembering, concentrating, accepting change, controlling their own behaviour, making friends, anxiety, or depression. People aged 2 to 4 are disabled if they have serious difficulty with at least one of the following: seeing (even with glasses), hearing (even with hearing aids), walking, manual dexterity, communicating, learning, playing or controlling their own behaviour. Children under 2 years old are not assessed for disability.
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[58] Data source: Stats NZ. (2021). Child poverty statistics: Year ended June 2020. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/child-poverty-statistics-year-ended-june-2020
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[59] Data source: Stats NZ. (2021). Child poverty statistics: Year ended June 2020. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/child-poverty-statistics-year-ended-june-2020
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[60] (same as [57]) Technical note: People aged 5 to 17 are assessed as disabled if they have serious difficulty with at least one of the following: seeing (even with glasses), hearing (even with hearing aids), walking, feeding or dressing themselves, communicating, learning, remembering, concentrating, accepting change, controlling their own behaviour, making friends, anxiety, or depression. People aged 2 to 4 are disabled if they have serious difficulty with at least one of the following: seeing (even with glasses), hearing (even with hearing aids), walking, manual dexterity, communicating, learning, playing or controlling their own behaviour. Children under 2 years old are not assessed for disability.
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[61] Data source: Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (DPMC). Child Poverty Related Indicators Report. 2021. Forthcoming.
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[62] Data source: Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey. Customised data request. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
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[63] Technical note: Serious injuries data relates to known or reported injuries.
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[64] Data source: Stats NZ. The COVID-19 supplement in the June 2020 quarter Household Labour Force Survey. Customised data request. For more information see: https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/wellbeing-statistics-june-2020-quarter. Technical note: dependent children refers to a child under age 18, that lives with them and is not employed fulltime.
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[65] Data source: Stats NZ. The COVID-19 supplement in the June 2020 quarter Household Labour Force Survey. Customised data request. For more information see: https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/wellbeing-statistics-june-2020-quarter. Technical note: 'dependent children' refers to a child under age 18, that lives with them and is not employed fulltime.
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[66] Data source: Oranga Tamariki – Ministry for Children administrative data.
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[67] Data source: Oranga Tamariki – Ministry for Children administrative data. Technical Note: Ethnicity data is based on all ethnicities recorded for a child or young person. Descriptions of the ethnic groups used for reporting are: Māori – children who identify Māori (but not Pacific) as one of their ethnicities; Māori-Pacific – children who identify both Māori and Pacific as their ethnicities; Pacific – children who identify Pacific (but not Māori) as one of their ethnicities. The total number of tamariki Māori includes the total Māori group and the total Māori-Pacific group. Similarly, the total number of Pacific children is the sum of the Pacific group and the Māori-Pacific group.
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[68] Data source: Stats NZ. Customised data request. Serious Injury Outcome Indicators. For more information see: https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/serious-injury-outcome-indicators-2000-19 Technical note: Serious Injury Outcome Indicators present the annual number and rate of serious injury outcomes in New Zealand, through a set of indicators for fatal and non-fatal injuries. Serious non-fatal injuries are injury events in which a patient admitted to hospital is determined to have probability of death of 6.9% or more. These events include injuries due to falls, motor-vehicle crashes, assaults, work and intentional injuries. Stats NZ. Serious Injury Outcome Indicators data dictionary (version 74). Retrieved from http://datainfoplus.stats.govt.nz/item/nz.govt.stats/ed2d795c-dd2e-457d-97ea-4249fcef2a93/71
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[69] Data source: Stats NZ. Customised data request. Serious Injury Outcome Indicators. For more information see: https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/serious-injury-outcome-indicators-2000-19
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[70] Data source: Ministry of Health mortality webtool, https://minhealthnz.shinyapps.io/mortality_webtool/
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[71] Data source: Ministry of Health mortality webtool, https://minhealthnz.shinyapps.io/mortality_webtool/
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[72] Data source: Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey. Customised data request. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
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[73] Data source: Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey. Customised data request. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
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[74] Data source: Clark, T. C., Fleming, T., Bullen, P., Denny, S., Crengle, S., Dyson, B., Fortune, S., Lucassen, M., Peiris-John, R., Robinson, E., Rossen, F., Sheridan, J., Teevale, T., Utter, J. (2013). Youth'12 Prevalence Report. Auckland, New Zealand: The University of Auckland. Retrieved from https://www.fmhs.auckland.ac.nz/assets/fmhs/faculty/ahrg/docs/Prevalence%20report.pdf
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[75] Data source: OECD (2017), PISA 2015 Results (Volume III): Students’ Well-Being, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris, page 49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264273856-en
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[76] Data source: Stats NZ. 2018 General Social Survey. Customised data request: wellbeing statistics for ages 18-24-year olds. For more information: see https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/wellbeing-statistics-2018. Technical note: dependent children refers to a child under age 18, that lives with them and is not employed fulltime.
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[77] Data source: Stats NZ. Te Kupenga: 2018 (final) – English. Table 9. Whānau by age. June-September 2018. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/te-kupenga-2018-final-english
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[78] Data source: Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey. Customised data request. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
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[79] Data source: Clark, T. C., Fleming, T., Bullen, P., Denny, S., Crengle, S., Dyson, B., Fortune, S., Lucassen, M., Peiris-John, R., Robinson, E., Rossen, F., Sheridan, J., Teevale, T., Utter, J. (2013). Youth'12 Prevalence Report. Auckland, New Zealand: The University of Auckland. Retrieved from https://www.fmhs.auckland.ac.nz/assets/fmhs/faculty/ahrg/docs/Prevalence%20report.pdf
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[80] Data source: Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey. Customised data request. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
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[81] Data source: Clark, T. C., Fleming, T., Bullen, P., Denny, S., Crengle, S., Dyson, B., Fortune, S., Lucassen, M., Peiris-John, R., Robinson, E., Rossen, F., Sheridan, J., Teevale, T., Utter, J. (2013). Youth'12 Prevalence Report. Auckland, New Zealand: The University of Auckland. Retrieved from https://www.fmhs.auckland.ac.nz/assets/fmhs/faculty/ahrg/docs/Prevalence%20report.pdf
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[82] Data source: Ministry of Health. 2019/20 New Zealand Health Survey. Retrieved from https://minhealthnz.shinyapps.io/nz-health-survey-2019-20-annual-data-explorer/_w_a017d82f/#!/
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[83] Data source: Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey. Customised data request. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
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[84] Data source: Clark, T. C., Fleming, T., Bullen, P., Denny, S., Crengle, S., Dyson, B., Fortune, S., Lucassen, M., Peiris-John, R., Robinson, E., Rossen, F., Sheridan, J., Teevale, T., Utter, J. (2013). Youth'12 Prevalence Report. Auckland, New Zealand: The University of Auckland. Retrieved from https://www.fmhs.auckland.ac.nz/assets/fmhs/faculty/ahrg/docs/Prevalence%20report.pdf
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[85] Data source: Clark, T. C., Fleming, T., Bullen, P., Denny, S., Crengle, S., Dyson, B., Fortune, S., Lucassen, M., Peiris-John, R., Robinson, E., Rossen, F., Sheridan, J., Teevale, T., Utter, J. (2013). Youth'12 Prevalence Report. Auckland, New Zealand: The University of Auckland. Retrieved from https://www.fmhs.auckland.ac.nz/assets/fmhs/faculty/ahrg/docs/Prevalence%20report.pdf
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[86] Data source: Stats NZ. The COVID-19 supplement in the June 2020 quarter Household Labour Force Survey. Customised data request. For more information see: https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/wellbeing-statistics-june-2020-quarter
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[87] Data source: Customised data request: 2018 General Social Survey, wellbeing statistics for ages 18-24-year olds. For more information, see https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/wellbeing-statistics-2018.
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[88] Data source: Stats NZ. Customised data request. Serious Injury Outcome Indicators. For more information see: https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/serious-injury-outcome-indicators-2000-19
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[89] Data source: Serious Injury Outcome Indicators for children. Stats NZ. Retrieved from: https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/serious-injury-outcome-indicators-2000-19 Technical note: Intentional injuries include both self-harm and assault injuries to children.
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[90] Data source: Stats NZ. 2019/20 Household Economic Survey. Customised data request. Technical note: Good material wellbeing means households can, for instance, afford 15 or more specific things that most people regard as essential. Examples include having two pairs of good shoes, visits to the doctor, and paying the electricity or gas bills on time.
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[91] Data source: Stats NZ. 2018/19 Household Economic Survey. Customised data request.
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[92] Data source: Stats NZ. 2019/20 Household Economic Survey. Customised data request. Technical note: Low income: less than 50% median equivalised disposable household income before housing costs (BHC) for the financial year.
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[93] Data source: Stats NZ. (2021). Child poverty statistics: Year ended June 2020. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/child-poverty-statistics-year-ended-june-2020
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[94] Data source: Stats NZ. (2021). Child poverty statistics: Year ended June 2020. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/child-poverty-statistics-year-ended-june-2020 Technical note: Low income: less than 50% median equivalised disposable household income after housing costs (AHC) for the base financial year.
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[95] Data source: Stats NZ. (2021). Child poverty statistics: Year ended June 2020. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/child-poverty-statistics-year-ended-june-2020
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[96] Data source: Stats NZ. (2021). Child poverty statistics: Year ended June 2020. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/child-poverty-statistics-year-ended-june-2020
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[97] Technical note: The difference in the count with the previous figure of 1,144,200 has to do with the way that Stats NZ does benchmarking and estimates.
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[98] Data source: Stats NZ. (2021). Child poverty statistics: Year ended June 2020. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/child-poverty-statistics-year-ended-june-2020
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[99] Data source: Ministry of Health. New Zealand Health Survey (NZHS). Customised data request: Food Insecurity 2019/20 financial year.
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[100] Data source: Ministry of Health. New Zealand Health Survey (NZHS). Customised data request: Food Insecurity 2019/20 financial year.
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[101] Data source: Stats NZ. 2019/20 Household Economic Survey. Customised data request.
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[102] Data source: Stats NZ. 2019/20 Household Economic Survey. Customised data request.
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[103] Data source: Stats NZ. 2019/20 Household Economic Survey. Customised data request.
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[104] Data source: Stats NZ. 2019/20 Household Economic Survey. Customised data request.
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[105] Data source: Stats NZ. 2019/20 Household Economic Survey. Customised data request.
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[106] Data source: Ministry of Health. 2019/20 New Zealand Health Survey (NZHS). Customised data request: Food Insecurity 2019/20 financial year.
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[107] Technical note: Adequate vegetable and fruit intake for children aged 2–4 years is at least two servings of vegetables each day (three for 5-14-year-olds). Adequate fruit intake for children aged 2–14 years is at least two servings of fruit each day, as recommended by the Ministry of Health. 2019 New Zealand Health Survey – Ministry of Health
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[108] Data source: Ministry of Health. 2019/20 New Zealand Health Survey. Retrieved from https://minhealthnz.shinyapps.io/nz-health-survey-2019-20-annual-data-explorer/_w_a017d82f/#!/
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[109] Data source: Stats NZ. 2019/20 Household Economic Survey. Customised data request.
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[110] Data source: Stats NZ. Te Kupenga: 2018 (final) – English – supplementary tables. Table 1. Housing by age June-September 2018. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/te-kupenga-2018-final-english
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[111] Data source: Growing Up in New Zealand: Now we are eight 2020 report. Retrieved from https://www.growingup.co.nz/sites/growingup.co.nz/files/documents/GUINZ_Now_We_Are_8_ONLINE.pdf
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[112] Data source: Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (DPMC). Child Poverty Related Indicators Report. July 2020. Retrieved from https://dpmc.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-07/child-poverty-related-indicators-2020.pdf
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[113] Data source: Ministry of Health. New Zealand Maternity Clinical Indicators 2018 – trends. Retrieved from https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/new-zealand-maternity-clinical-indicators-2018
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[114] Data source: Ministry of Health. New Zealand Maternity Clinical Indicators 2018 – trends. Retrieved from https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/new-zealand-maternity-clinical-indicators-2018
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[115] Data source: Ministry of Health. New Zealand Maternity Clinical Indicators 2018 – trends. Retrieved from https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/new-zealand-maternity-clinical-indicators-2018
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[116] Data source: Ministry of Health. New Zealand Maternity Clinical Indicators 2018 – trends. Retrieved from https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/new-zealand-maternity-clinical-indicators-2018
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[117] Data source: Ministry of Health. New Zealand Maternity Clinical Indicators 2018 – trends. Retrieved from https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/new-zealand-maternity-clinical-indicators-2018
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[118] Data source: Ministry of Health. New Zealand Maternity Clinical Indicators 2018 – trends. Retrieved from https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/new-zealand-maternity-clinical-indicators-2018
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[119] Data source: Ministry of Health (2020). 2019/20 New Zealand Health Survey. Customised data request.
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[120] Data source: Ministry of Health (2020). 2019/20 New Zealand Health Survey. Customised data request.
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[121] Data source: Ministry of Health (2020). 2019/20 New Zealand Health Survey. Customised data request.
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[122] Data source: Ministry of Health (2020). 2019/20 New Zealand Health Survey. Customised data request.
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[123] Data source: Ministry of Health (2020). 2019/20 New Zealand Health Survey. Customised data request.
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[124] Data source: Ministry of Health (2020). 2019/20 New Zealand Health Survey. Customised data request.
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[125] Data source: Ministry of Justice, Coronial Services. Annual Suicide Statistics. Provisional Figures 2020. Retrieved from https://coronialservices.justice.govt.nz/assets/Documents/Publications/2020-Annual-Provisional-Suicide-Statistics.pdf
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[126] Data source: Ministry of Justice, Coronial Services. Annual Suicide Statistics. Provisional Figures 2020. Retrieved from https://coronialservices.justice.govt.nz/assets/Documents/Publications/2020-Annual-Provisional-Suicide-Statistics.pdf
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[127] Technical note: A premature birth is a birth that takes place more than three weeks before the baby's estimated due date. In other words, a premature birth is one that occurs before the start of the 37th week of pregnancy.
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[128] Data source: Ministry of Health. New Zealand Maternity Clinical Indicators 2018 – trends. https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/new-zealand-maternity-clinical-indicators-2018
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[129] Data source: Ministry of Health (2020). 2019/20 New Zealand Health Survey. Retrieved from https://minhealthnz.shinyapps.io/nz-health-survey-2019-20-annual-data-explorer/_w_80e9671e/#!/explore-indicators
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[130] Data source: UNICEF Innocenti, Worlds of Influence: Understanding what shapes child well-being in rich countries, Innocenti Report Card 16, UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti, Florence, 2020.
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[131] Data source: OECD (2017), PISA 2015 Results (Volume III): Students' Well-Being, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264273856-en
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[132] Data source: Ministry of Health. 2019/20 New Zealand Health Survey (NZHS). Customised data request.
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[133] Data source: Ministry of Health. 2019/20 New Zealand Health Survey (NZHS). Customised data request.
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[134] Technical note: Score of 13 or more on the World Health Organization Well-being Index (WHO-5).
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[135] Technical note: Depression symptoms were measured with the Short Form of the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS-SF). In this scale, higher scores indicate likelihood of having clinically significant symptoms of depression (i.e., symptoms of depression that are likely to affect the young person in their daily life, including at home and school).
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[136] Data source: Fleming, T., Tiatia-Seath, J., Peiris-John, R., Sutcliffe, K., Archer, D., Bavin, L., Crengle, S., & Clark, T. (2020). Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey, Initial Findings: Hauora Hinengaro / Emotional and Mental Health. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
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[137] Data source: Ministry of Health. 2019/20 New Zealand Health Survey (NZHS). Retrieved from https://minhealthnz.shinyapps.io/nz-health-survey-2019-20-annual-data-explorer/_w_80e9671e/#!/explore-indicators
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[138] Data source: Stats NZ. The COVID-19 supplement in the June 2020 quarter Household Labour Force Survey. Retrieved from: https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/wellbeing-statistics-june-2020-quarter
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[139] Data source: Fleming, T., Tiatia-Seath, J., Peiris-John, R., Sutcliffe, K., Archer, D., Bavin, L., Crengle, S., & Clark, T. (2020). Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey, Initial Findings: Hauora Hinengaro / Emotional and Mental Health. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. Retrieved from https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5bdbb75ccef37259122e59aa/t/5f338e4cfb539d2246e9e5ce/1597214306382/Youth19+Mental+Health+Report.pdf
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[140] Data source: Ministry of Justice. Annual provisional suicide statistics for deaths reported to the Coroner between 1 July 2007 and 30 June 2020. Retrieved from https://coronialservices.justice.govt.nz/assets/Documents/Publications/Provisional-Figures-August-2019.pdf
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[141] Data source: UNICEF Innocenti, Worlds of Influence: Understanding what shapes child well-being in rich countries, Innocenti Report Card 16, UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti, Florence, 2020.
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[142] Data source: Ministry of Education. Early Childhood Education Participation Intensity Measure 1 30 June 2020 results. Retrieved from https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/195816/ECE-Participation-Intensity-Measure-30-June-2020-results.pdf Technical note: For those aged 4 on 30 June 2020, 74% of them attended Early Childhood Education for 10 or hours a week on average when they were aged 3. For the 5-year olds (these are 5-year olds as at June 2020 and their attendance when they were aged 4) for all groups.
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[143] Data source: Ministry of Education. Early Childhood Education Participation Intensity Measure 1 30 June 2020 results. Retrieved from https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/195816/ECE-Participation-Intensity-Measure-30-June-2020-results.pdf
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[144] Data source: Ministry of Education. Student Attendance Survey Term 2, 2020. Retrieved from https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/198025/NZ-Schools-Attendance-Survey-2019.pdf
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[145] Data source: Ministry of Education. Student Attendance Survey Term 2, 2020. Retrieved from https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/198025/NZ-Schools-Attendance-Survey-2019.pdf
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[146] Data source: Ministry of Education. Student Attendance Survey Term 2, 2020. https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/198025/NZ-Schools-Attendance-Survey-2019.pdf
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[147] Data source: New Zealand's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018: New Zealand Students' Wellbeing, December 2019 https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/series/PISA/pisa-2018/pisa-2018-student-wellbeing
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[148] Data source: New Zealand's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018: New Zealand Students' Wellbeing, December 2019 https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/series/PISA/pisa-2018/pisa-2018-student-wellbeing
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[149] Data source: New Zealand's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015, 2016. https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/180613/PISA-2015-Summary-V2.pdf
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[150] Data source: Stats NZ. 2019/20 Household Labour Force Survey. Customised data request.
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[151] Data source: Stats NZ. 2019/20 Household Labour Force Survey. Customised data request.
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[152] Data source: Stats NZ. 2018/19 Household Labour Force Survey. Customised data request.
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[153] Data source: Ministry of Education (2020). Early Childhood Education (ECE) Participation. Last updated January 2020. Retrieved from https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/9956/Participation-indicator.pdf
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[154] Data source: Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (DPMC). Child Poverty Related Indicators Report. 2021. Forthcoming.
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[155] Data source: The Ministry of Education. 2018 PISA survey findings published. Retrieved from https://www.education.govt.nz/news/2018-pisa-survey-findings-published/
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[156] Data source: May, S; Jang-Jones, Adam; McGregor, Alexandra; (2019) PISA 2018: Summary Report – System Performance and Equity, Ministry of Education (MOE), December 2019.
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[157] Technical note: A 'growth mindset' (or incremental theory of intelligence) is the belief that someone's ability and intelligence can develop over time. On the other hand, a fixed mindset is the belief that ability and intelligence are largely unalterable by experience.
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[158] Data source: New Zealand's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018: New Zealand Students' Wellbeing, December 2019. Retrieved from https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/series/PISA/pisa-2018/pisa-2018-student-wellbeing
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[159] Data source: New Zealand's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018: New Zealand Students' Wellbeing, December 2019. Retrieved from https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/series/PISA/pisa-2018/pisa-2018-student-wellbeing Technical note: General self-efficacy is a central aspect of a student's mental resilience and the self-efficacy questions that PISA asked students are derived from the Resilience Scale57, a widely used questionnaire for measuring resilience. General fear of failure, a tendency to try to avoid mistakes, is a concept closely related to self-efficacy.
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[160] Data source: New Zealand's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018: New Zealand Students' Wellbeing, December 2019. Retrieved from https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/series/PISA/pisa-2018/pisa-2018-student-wellbeing. Page 54.
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[161] Data source: New Zealand's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018: New Zealand Students' Wellbeing, December 2019. Retrieved from https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/series/PISA/pisa-2018/pisa-2018-student-wellbeing. Page 55.
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[162] Data source: New Zealand's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018: New Zealand Students' Wellbeing, December 2019. Retrieved from https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/series/PISA/pisa-2018/pisa-2018-student-wellbeing. Page 55.
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[163] Data Source: OECD (2021), Youth not in employment, education or training (NEET) (indicator). doi: 10.1787/72d1033a-en (Accessed on 19 April 2021).
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[164] Data source: Stats NZ. Te Kupenga: 2018 (final) – English – supplementary tables. 10. Oranga by age. June-September 2018. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/te-kupenga-2018-final-english
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[165] Data source: Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey. Customised data request. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
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[166] Data source: Stats NZ. 2018 New Zealand General Social Survey: Wellbeing statistics. Table 3: Selected wellbeing measures by age (10-year groupings). Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/wellbeing-statistics-2018
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[167] Data source: Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey. Customised data request. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
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[168] Data source: Stats NZ. The COVID-19 supplement in the June 2020 quarter Household Labour Force Survey. Customised data request. For more information, see: https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/wellbeing-statistics-june-2020-quarter
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[169] Data source: Stats NZ. Te Kupenga: 2018 (final) – English – supplementary tables. Table 6. Trust & Discrimination by age. June-September 2018. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/te-kupenga-2018-final-english
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[170] Data source: Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey. Customised data request. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
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[171] Data source: Stats NZ. 2018 General Social Survey. Social Support Indicator. Retrieved from https://statisticsnz.shinyapps.io/wellbeingindicators/_w_ed80a341/?page=indicators&class=Social&type=Social%20connections&indicator=Social%20support
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[172] Data source: Fleming, T., Tiatia-Seath, J., Peiris-John, R., Sutcliffe, K., Archer, D., Bavin, L., Crengle, S., & Clark, T. (2020). Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey, Initial Findings: Hauora Hinengaro / Emotional and Mental Health. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
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[173] Data source: Stats NZ. Te Kupenga: 2018 (final) – English. Table 9. Whānau by age group. June-September 2018. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/te-kupenga-2018-final-english
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[174] Data source: Stats NZ. Te Kupenga: 2018 (final) – English. Table 9. Whānau by age group. June-September 2018. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/te-kupenga-2018-final-english
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[175] Data source: Stats NZ. Te Kupenga: 2018 (final) – English. Table 1. Culture by age group. June-September 2018. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/te-kupenga-2018-final-english
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[176] Data source: Stats NZ. 2018 Census ethnic group summaries: Ethnicity, culture and identity. Table 6. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/tools/2018-census-ethnic-group-summaries
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[177] Data source: Stats NZ. Te Kupenga: 2018 (final) – English. Table 5: Te reo Māori by age. June-September 2018. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/te-kupenga-2018-final-english
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[178] Data source: Stats NZ. Wellbeing data for New Zealanders, 2018. Retrieved from https://statisticsnz.shinyapps.io/wellbeingindicators/_w_ed80a341/_w_7561d0fe/_w_9d2483d3/?page=indicators&class=Cultural&type=Culture&indicator=Te%20reo%20M%C4%81ori%20speakers
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[179] Data source: Electoral Commission. Voter turnout statistics for the 2020 General Election. Retrieved from https://elections.nz/democracy-in-nz/historical-events/2020-general-election-and-referendums/voter-turnout-statistics-for-the-2020-general-election/
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[180] Technical note: Maori descendent refers to "a genealogical or biological concept, rather than on cultural affiliation (as ethnicity is). The statistical standard defines Māori descent as: "A person has Māori descent if they are of the Māori race of New Zealand; this includes any descendant of such a person." For more details, see https://www.stats.govt.nz/assets/Research/Identifying-Maori-populations-using-administrative-data-A-comparison-with-the-census/Identifying-Maori-populations-using-administrative-data-a-comparison-with-the-census.pdf
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[181] Data source: Electoral Commission. Voter turnout statistics for the 2020 General Election. Retrieved from https://elections.nz/democracy-in-nz/historical-events/2020-general-election-and-referendums/voter-turnout-statistics-for-the-2020-general-election/
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[182] Data source: Stats NZ. The COVID-19 supplement in the June 2020 quarter of the Household Labour Force Survey. Customised data request. For more information, see: https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/wellbeing-statistics-june-2020-quarter
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[183] Data source: Stats NZ. The COVID-19 supplement in the June 2020 quarter of the Household Labour Force Survey. Customised data request. For more information, see: https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/wellbeing-statistics-june-2020-quarter
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[184] Data source: Ministry of Health. 2019/20 New Zealand Health Survey. Retrieved from https://minhealthnz.shinyapps.io/nz-health-survey-2019-20-annual-data-explorer/_w_a017d82f/#!/ Technical note: Hazardous drinking is measured using the 10-question Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) developed by the World Health Organization, which covers three aspects of alcohol use: alcohol consumption, dependence and adverse consequences.
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[185] Data source: Ministry of Health. 2019/20 New Zealand Health Survey. Retrieved from https://minhealthnz.shinyapps.io/nz-health-survey-2019-20-annual-data-explorer/_w_a017d82f/#!/ Technical note: Current smokers smoke at least monthly and have smoked more than 100 cigarettes in their whole life.
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[186] Data source: Ministry of Health. 2019/20 New Zealand Health Survey. Retrieved from https://minhealthnz.shinyapps.io/nz-health-survey-2019-20-annual-data-explorer/_w_a017d82f/#!/ Technical note: A past-year amphetamine user is a person who has used amphetamine for recreational or non–medical purposes, or to get high, in the last 12 months.
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[187] Data source: Ministry of Health. 2019/20 New Zealand Health Survey. Retrieved from https://minhealthnz.shinyapps.io/nz-health-survey-2019-20-annual-data-explorer/_w_a017d82f/#!/
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[188] Data source: Ministry of Justice: Youth Justice Indicators Workbook December 2020. Retrieved from https://www.justice.govt.nz/justice-sector-policy/research-data/justice-statistics/youth-justice-indicators/
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[189] Technical note: The Oranga Tamariki Act 1989 extended the Youth Court Jurisdiction to include most 17-year olds up until their 18th birthday. This change has applied since 1 July 2019. Previously, it included up to 16-year olds until their 17th birthday.
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[190] Data source: Ministry of Justice: Youth Justice Indicators Workbook December 2020. Retrieved from https://www.justice.govt.nz/justice-sector-policy/research-data/justice-statistics/youth-justice-indicators/
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[191] Data source: Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey. Customised data request. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
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[192] Data source: Stats NZ. Te Kupenga: 2018 (final) – English – supplementary tables. Table 10. Selected oranga measures, by age group. June-September 2018. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/te-kupenga-2018-final-english
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[193] Data source: Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey. Customised data request. The Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
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[194] Data source: Stats NZ. The COVID-19 supplement in the June 2020 quarter of the Household Labour Force Survey. Customised data request. For more information see: https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/wellbeing-statistics-june-2020-quarter
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[195] Data source: Stats NZ. Te Kupenga: 2018 (final) – English – supplementary tables. Table 10. Selected oranga measures, by age group. June-September 2018. Retrieved from https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/te-kupenga-2018-final-english
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[196] Data source: Fleming, T., Ball, J., Peiris-John, R., Crengle, S., Bavin, L., Tiatia-Seath, J., Archer, D., & Clark, T. (2020). Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey, Initial Findings: Substance Use. Youth19 Research Group, The University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. Retrieved from https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5bdbb75ccef37259122e59aa/t/5f3396209830484e5a9b3a0d/1597216310364/Youth19+Substance+Use+Report.pdf
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[197] Data source: Ministry of Justice: Youth Justice Indicators Workbook December 2020. Retrieved from https://www.justice.govt.nz/justice-sector-policy/research-data/justice-statistics/youth-justice-indicators/
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[198] Technical note: As opposed to deficit-based indicators, which focus on the lacks and weaknesses of individuals or groups.
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[199] Technical note: The Youth19 survey was conducted during 2019 in the Auckland, Waikato and Te Tai Tokerau education regions. These three regions contain 47% of the total New Zealand youth population and are the most ethnically diverse areas of the country. Percentages have been adjusted using nationally calibrated weights to make estimates that reflect the national student population, as well as adjusted to account for the clustering of data within schools and stratification. This survey includes a sample of 7651 participants primarily aged between 13 and 18 years (0.3 % of the sample was under 13 years and 0.3% was over 18 years). Only students who were at school on the day of the survey were included. All data are self-reported and anonymous. The survey comprised 285 questions across 11 key areas: ethnicity and culture; home life; identity; school; health; emotions; injury and violence; sport, work and online time; sex and sexuality; addictive behaviours; and neighbourhood and spirituality.
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[200] Technical note: Growing Up in New Zealand is a longitudinal study that provides contemporary, population-relevant information to understand what shapes the development and wellbeing of children growing up in New Zealand in the 21st century. The study was designed to follow children from before birth until they are young adults, to understand what 'works' for children and families as well as what creates challenges for wellbeing. The study recruited the child cohort via pregnant women who had expected delivery dates between the 25th of April 2009 and the 25th of March 2010 and who were residing in the geographical areas defined by the three contiguous District Health Board regions (DHBs) of Auckland, Counties Manukau and Waikato during their pregnancy. A cohort of approximately of 7000 pregnant women was recruited in 2009 and 2010 to be broadly generalisable to the current New Zealand birth population. For more details, see https://www.growingup.co.nz/
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[201] Technical note: The Youth Health and Wellbeing Survey WhatAboutMe? is a nationwide survey of around 14,000 young people about what it's like to be a young person in Aotearoa. Things like where they live, what they experience and what is important to them. https://www.whataboutme.nz/ It is managed by the Ministry of Social Development. The school closure as part of the COVID-19 level 4 lockdown delayed the survey until Terms 2-3 in 2021.
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Last updated: 
Friday, 4 June 2021